Subjective and objective assessment of pain and discomfort due to lameness in dairy cattle
Contributor(s):: O'Callaghan, K. A., Cripps, P. J., Downham, D. Y., Murray, R. D.
Pain experienced by lame cattle is often masked by their instinctive stoicism, leading to delayed detection and treatment of lameness. This paper investigates the usefulness of posture scoring during locomotion and the evaluation of daily activity levels as indicators of pain and discomfort...
The effect of duration of manual restraint during blood sampling on plasma cortisol levels in calves
Contributor(s):: Stilwell G, G., Carvalho, R. C. de, Lima, M. S., Broom, D. M.
Many studies on stress and pain rely, solely or mainly, on plasma cortisol assessment. Confounding factors, such as handling, may cause a release of cortisol making the interpretation of the results difficult. We looked at the influence of duration of restraint on the plasma cortisol levels of...
The effects of amount and frequency of pulsed direct current used in water bath stunning and of slaughter methods on spontaneous electroencephalograms in broilers
Contributor(s):: Raj, A. B. M., O'Callaghan, M., Hughes, S. I.
The effectiveness of electrical water bath stunning of broilers (n=96) for 1 s with a constant average current of 100, 150 or 200 mA delivered using a variable voltage/constant current stunner with 200, 800 or 1400 Hz pulsed direct current (DC), with a mark:space ratio of 1:1, followed by...
The humaneness of rodent pest control
Contributor(s):: Mason, G., Littin, K. E.
The use of a hand-held algometer as a method to measure mechanical nociceptive thresholds in sheep
Contributor(s):: Stubsjoen, S. M., Valle, P. S., Zanella, A. J.
The aim of this study was to explore the use of a hand-held algometer for the measurement of mechanical nociceptive thresholds (MNT) in sheep (Ovis aries). Twelve ewes were tested over three consecutive days by two operators, and MNTs were measured over six predetermined sites on both forelimbs...
The use of analogous reasoning for assessing discomfort in laboratory animals
Contributor(s):: Stafleu, F. R., Rivas, E., Rivas, T., Vorstenbosch, J., Heeger, F. R., Beynen, A. C.
The welfare impact of increased gavaging doses in rats
| Contributor(s):: Alban, L., Dahl, P. J., Hansen, A. K., Hejgaard, K. C., Jensen, A. L., Kragh, M., Thomsen, P., Steensgaard, P.
Textbook recommendations for gavaging rats vary between 1-5 ml for an adult rat. Rats weighing either 130 or 250 g were gavaged with varying dosages of barium sulphate (BaSO4). After dosing, radiographs were taken at 0, 15 and 60 min. Animals showing a section of the small intestine totally...
The welfare problems associated with using transgenic mice to bioassay for bovine spongiform encephalopathy
| Contributor(s):: Jenkins, E. S., Combes, R. D.
The ethical score system devised by Porter (Nature (1992) 365: 101-102) was applied to the transgenic mouse model used to bioassay BSE. Areas identified as potential targets for reducing the severity of the bioassay included the method of inoculation, duration of the bioassay and the duration of...
Vocal-type classification as a tool to identify stress in piglets under on-farm conditions
| Contributor(s):: Borell, E. von, Bunger, B., Schmidt, T., Horn, T.
Previous studies have shown that the analysis of high frequency stress calls in pigs can serve as a reliable tool in welfare research. Our study focuses on the classification of three different classes of piglet vocalisation: grunting, squealing and screaming. In a castration experiment...
Welfare concerns associated with pedigree dog breeding in the UK
| Contributor(s):: Rooney, N. J., Sargan, D. R.
In the UK, numerous pedigree dogs of many breeds experience compromised welfare due to the direct and indirect effects of selective breeding. Many breeds are selected to have physical conformations which, although perceived by some to be desirable, have direct negative effects upon their welfare....
Zoomorphism and anthropomorphism: fruitful fallacies? (Special Issue: Knowing animals.)
| Contributor(s):: Webster, J.
Zoo- and anthropomorphism may both be scientific heresies but both may serve as a basis for thought (and real) experiments designed to explore our ability to assess quality of life as perceived by another sentient animal. Sentience, a major contributor to evolutionary fitness in a complex...
Animal welfare: concept and related issues - review
| Contributor(s):: Broom, D. M., Molento, C. F. M.
Welfare is a word widely used by the public in many situations and its meaning is often not precise. However, an objective definition is needed if the concept is to be used scientifically and professionally. Moreover, welfare has to be defined in such a way that it can be readily related to other...
Coordination of French research on animal welfare: organisation and activities of AGRI animal welfare
| Contributor(s):: Veissier, I., Levy, F., Beaumont, C., Larrere, R., Dantzer, R.
AGRIBEA was organized in 1999 to coordinate animal welfare research conducted by INRA (French Institute for Agronomy Research). Since then, AGRIBEA had expanded rapidly within and outside INRA and now had 128 members of which less than two thirds were from INRA, while the other members came from...
Pain management and the human-animal bond
| Contributor(s):: Downing, R.
The horse as a companion animal. (UFAW Animal Welfare Series)
| Contributor(s):: Loving, N. S.
This chapter focuses on the welfare issues associated with horses kept as companion animals. The use of the companion horse for athletic pursuits, breeding, overprotection of foals, incompatibility of the horse to the purchaser, sale and purchase of horses with behavioural problems, loss of...
The somatic sensory system
| Contributor(s):: Kamerling, S. G.
The somatic sensory system provides information on bodily sensations. The status of an animal's internal and external environment is detected and interpreted by this system. Specialized receptors "transduce" the sensations of touch, pressure, temperature, and pain. Sensory impulses are...