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  1. How do grazing heifers choose between maturing reproductive and tall or short vegetative swards?

    Contributor(s):: Ginane, C., Petit, M., D'Hour, P.

    We offered heifers the choice between a tall abundant reproductive sward (RS), evolving from ear emergence to full flowering in the course of the experiment, and a short (8-cm high, treatment S) or tall (14-cm high, treatment T) vegetative sward (VS). This aimed to create a trade-off between...

  2. Influence of floor type in the walking area of cubicle housing systems on the behaviour of dairy cows

    Contributor(s):: Haufe, H. C., Gygax, L., Steiner, B., Friedli, K., Stauffacher, M., Wechsler, B.

    The objective of this study was to compare the behaviour of dairy cows in cubicle housing systems with different floor types (mastic asphalt, slatted concrete floor and rubber floor) in the walking area. From a total number of 18 farms, 6 farms each were equipped with one of the given floor...

  3. Instantaneous intake rate in horses of different body sizes: influence of sward biomass and fibrousness

    Contributor(s):: Fleurance, G., Fritz, H., Duncan, P., Gordon, I. J., Edouard, N., Vial, C.

    The functional response, that is the relationship between the food intake rate of a forager and the availability of food items, has been subject to numerous investigations in ruminants. In horses however, the functional response has been poorly studied despite of the importance of grazed forage...

  4. Intake and selection for white clover by grazing lambs in response to gastrointestinal parasitism

    Contributor(s):: Cosgrove, G. P., Niezen, J. H.

    A study was conducted at Palmerston North, New Zealand to determine if lambs grazing at pasture would enhance their nutrient intake in response to parasitism, by selecting more white clover from a mixed grass-clover pasture. The trial used a split-plot design with two grass-clover mixtures as...

  5. Landscape nutritional patterns and cattle distribution in rangeland pastures

    Contributor(s):: Ganskopp, D. C., Bohnert, D. W.

    On rangelands, uneven or unmanaged livestock distribution can adversely affect plant community composition, riparian function, or displace wildlife. These issues have historic precedents and are still a challenge for those managing rangelands. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms governing...

  6. Least-effort pathways: a GIS analysis of livestock trails in rugged terrain

    Contributor(s):: Ganskopp, D., Cruz, R., Johnson, D. E.

    Cattle trails were mapped in three 800+ ha pastures with global positioning units. A geographic information system (GIS) helped quantify characteristics of trails and the landscape and was used to plot least-effort pathways between water sources and distant points on selected trails in the...

  7. Oral/nasal/facial and other behaviors of sows kept individually outdoors on pasture, soil or indoors in gestation crates

    Contributor(s):: Dailey, J. W., McGlone, J. J.

    PIC Camborough-15 sows were housed either on pasture (n=8), on soil (n=8) or in gestation crates (n=16). All were fed 2.0 kg of fortified sorghum-soybean diet each day in pellet form, except half of the crated sows which were fed meal. The occurrences of standing, lying, sitting, feeding,...

  8. Relationships among variables indexing selective grazing behavior of goats

    Contributor(s):: Ganskopp, D., Cruz, R., Fajemisin, B.

    Although portable computers presently allow documentation of real-time grazing behaviour under field conditions, the task of selecting proper and easily recorded variables to test their hypotheses still exists. In view of this, the relationships among variables describing grazing behaviour and...

  9. Seasonal foraging behavioural compensation in reproductive wapiti hinds ( Cervus elaphus canadensis )

    Contributor(s):: Gedir, J. V., Hudson, R. J.

    Captive wapiti hinds were observed during seven periods between June 1996 and November 1997. We investigated their activity and foraging behaviour on two pastures, heavily and lightly grazed, during four phases of the reproductive cycle (early gestation, late gestation, peak lactation, and late...

  10. Selective differences between naive and experienced cattle foraging among eight grasses

    Contributor(s):: Ganskopp, D., Cruz, R.

    The study examined how rapidly naive cattle express clearly defined preferences when they encounter a new array of forages, and compared their evolving forage preferences and grazing behaviour with those of experienced cattle. Three naive and three experienced yearling-steers were grazed in...

  11. Social hierarchy in the domestic goat: effect on food habits and production

    Contributor(s):: Barroso, F. G., Alados, C. L., Boza, J.

    The main objective of this paper is to determine if there is a stable hierarchy of dominance in a flock of goats fed in pasture, and if this hierarchy influences somehow the diet selected in the pasture and in its production of milk and meat. The study was carried out in a flock of goats (n=90)...

  12. Strategies for the avoidance of faeces by grazing sheep

    Contributor(s):: Cooper, J., Gordon, I. J., Pike, A. W.

    Experiments were conducted to investigate which environmental cues were used by sheep when discriminating against patches of pasture contaminated with faeces. The influence of the spatial distribution of contaminated patches and the parasite infection status of sheep on avoidance of contaminated...

  13. The benefits of high rank in the wintertime - a study of the Icelandic horse

    Contributor(s):: Ingolfsdottir, H. B., Sigurjonsdottir, H.

    Behaviour and location of individuals in five groups (N=10; 19; 23; 28; and 30) of Icelandic horses kept in large pastures was documented to see if rank position influenced access to hay and shelter in the wintertime. Rank orders were significantly linear in all groups and correlated with both...

  14. The effect of physiological state (lactating or dry) and sward surface height on grazing behaviour and intake by dairy cows

    Contributor(s):: Gibb, M. J., Huckle, C. A., Nuthall, R., Rook, A. J.

    The effect of physiological state, lactating (n=27) vs. non-lactating (dry, n=27), on grazing behaviour and herbage intake by Holstein-Friesian cows was examined on grass (Lolium perenne cv. Melle) pastures maintained at 5, 7 or 9 cm sward surface height (SSH), typical of those provided under...

  15. The effects of surface type on lying behaviour and stress responses of dairy cows during periodic weather-induced removal from pasture

    Contributor(s):: Fisher, A. D., Stewart, M., Verkerk, G. A., Morrow, C. J., Matthews, L. R.

    In some dairy cow grazing systems, during wet weather, the cows are removed from the pasture to a separate area for most of the day, in order to minimize treading damage to the soil. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of four surfaces commonly used for this "stand-off"...

  16. Use of cues by grazing animals to locate food patches: an example with sheep

    Contributor(s):: Edwards, G. R., Newman, J. A., Parsons, A. J., Krebs, J. R.

    The ability of sheep to form spatial associations between 2 cues and 2 feed rewards and to distinguish between the cues prior to grazing them was examined. At 12 locations within a long, thin field, individual sheep chose between a pair of patches (plastic bowls) containing preferred (cereal...

  17. Winter range use by cattle of different ages in southwestern Montana

    Contributor(s):: Beaver, J. M., Olson, B. E.

    During two winters (1993/94 and 1994/95), the use of winter range by young (3-year-old) cattle that had no experience on winter range was compared with mature (7- to 8-year-old) cattle that had experience on winter range. Ten 3-year-old cows were alternated weekly with ten 7- to 8-year-old cows...

  18. A review of range production and management extension activities in Kenya

    Contributor(s):: Maranga, E. K.

    The paper presents an overview of the development of range management extension activities in Kenya. The status quo of range management activities is discussed with particular reference to extension infrastructure, scope of extension interventions and mechanisms of dissemination of these...

  19. Biofuels: efficiency, ethics, and limits to human appropriation of ecosystem services

    Contributor(s):: Gomiero, T., Paoletti, M. G., Pimentel, D.

    Biofuels have lately been indicated as a promising source of cheap and sustainable energy. In this paper we argue that some important ethical and environmental issues have also to be addressed: (1) the conflict between biofuels production and global food security, particularly in developing...

  20. Resolving conflicting priorities in Ontario agriculture

    Contributor(s):: Clark, E. A.

    Changes in global patterns of grain production have affected the profitability of commercial, cash-crop agriculture in North America. The current financial crisis has highlighted a perceived conflict between the priorities of (1) strengthening net farm profit, (2) maintaining the productive...