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  1. Pesticides and the patent bargain

    Contributor(s):: Timmermann, C.

    In order to enlarge the pool of knowledge available in the public domain, temporary exclusive rights (i.e. patents) are granted to innovators who are willing to fully disclose the information needed to reproduce their invention. After the 20-year patent protection period elapses, society should...

  2. Are life patents ethical? Conflict between catholic social teaching and agricultural biotechnology's patent regime

    Contributor(s):: Warner, K. D.

    Patents for genetic material in the industrialized countries have expanded significantly over the past twenty years, playing a crucial role in the current configuration of the agricultural biotechnology industries, and raising significant ethical issues. Patents have been claimed for genes, gene...

  3. Exclusion by inclusion? On difficulties with regard to an effective ethical assessment of patenting in the field of agricultural bio-technology

    Contributor(s):: Baumgartner, C.

    In order to take ethical considerations of patenting biological material into account, the so-called "ordre public or morality clause" was implemented as Article 6 in the EC directive on the legal protection of biotechnological inventions, 98/44/EC. At first glance, this seems to provide a...

  4. Exploiting abstract possibilities: a critique of the concept and practice of product patenting

    Contributor(s):: Radder, H.

    Developments in biotechnology and genomics have moved the issue of patenting scientific and technological inventions toward the centre of interest. In particular, the patentability of genes of plants, animals, or humans and of genetically modified (parts of) living organisms has been discussed,...

  5. GM crops: patently wrong? (Special issue: Food and the public's health)

    Contributor(s):: Wilson, J.

    This paper focuses on the ethical justifiability of patents on genetically modified (GM) crops. I argue that there are three distinguishing features of GM crops that make it unethical to grant patents on GM crops, even if we assume that the patent system is in general justified. The first half of...

  6. There is a conflict between intellectual property rights and the rights of farmers in developing countries

    Contributor(s):: Shand, H.

    This article precedes one putting the contrary view by S. B. Williams, Jr. It is argued that the debate extends to the future control of the world's food supply. Patent proposals at the General Agreement on Tarrifs and Trade, the World Intellectual Property Organization and at the European...

  7. Genomic dairy cattle breeding: risks and opportunities for cow welfare

    Contributor(s):: Mark, T., Sandoe, P.

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential consequences of modern dairy cattle breeding for the welfare of dairy cows. The paper focuses on so-called genomic selection, which deploys thousands of genetic markers to estimate breeding values. The discussion should help to structure the...