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  1. Assessing fear of novel and startling stimuli in domestic dogs

    Contributor(s):: Ley, J., Coleman, G. J., Holmes, R., Hemsworth, P. H.

    Dog attacks on humans are a community issue and, while defensive and offensive aggression are implicated, little is known about the motivational basis of these attacks. Defensive aggression arising from fear may be implicated in some attacks and thus research on measuring fear in dogs is clearly...

  2. Behavioural effects of embryonic exposure to corticosterone in chickens

    Contributor(s):: Janczak, A. M., Braastad, B. O., Bakken, M.

    We tested the hypothesis that exposure of chick embryos to corticosterone leads to increased fear, reduced competitive ability, reduced ability to cross a barrier and reduced growth in juvenile chicks. Behaviour was studied in birds subjected to three different egg injection treatments: a...

  3. Results of a follow-up investigation to a clinical trial testing the efficacy of clomipramine in the treatment of separation anxiety in dogs

    Contributor(s):: King, J. N., Overall, K. L., Appleby, D., Simpson, B. S., Beata, C., Chaurand, C. J. P., Heath, S. E., Ross, C., Weiss, A. B., Muller, G., Bataille, B. G., Paris, T., Pageat, P., Brovedani, F., Garden, C., Petit, S.

    The objective of the study was to investigate the incidence of adverse events and changes in behaviour after use of clomipramine to treat separation anxiety in dogs. This study was a follow-up investigation to a previously published clinical trial. In the main trial, dogs were randomized in a...

  4. Development of a prolonged oestrus effect for use in Judas goats

    Contributor(s):: Campbell, K. J., Baxter, G. S., Murray, P. J., Coblentz, B. E., Donlan, C. J.

    The use of Judas goats (JGs; Capra hircus) to locate remnant animals is a powerful tool for enhancing feral goat eradication efforts, being especially important to island conservation programs. JGs are goats that are captured, fitted with radio telemetry collars and released. As goats are...

  5. Protecting egg prey from Carrion Crows: the potential of aversive conditioning

    Contributor(s):: Cox, R., Baker, S. E., Macdonald, D. W., Berdoy, M.

    Carrion Crows, Corvus corone, are held responsible for taking the eggs and chicks of many bird species. In areas of conservation significance, intervention may be required. Traditionally, managers have attempted to control predation by killing predators, but this may not be the most effective or...

  6. The effects of handling procedures, breed differences and treatment with lithium and dexamethasone on some blood parameters in sheep

    Contributor(s):: Fenwick, D. C., Green, D. J.

    To test the effects of intravenous lithium chloride (LC) in healthy sheep, 15 aged Merinos and 15 aged Border Leicester ewes were infused with either LC (20 mg/kg body weight), LC (20 mg/kg) and dexamethasone (1 ml of 0.2% solution per 40 kg), or saline. Blood samples were taken at the time of...

  7. A first description of the physiological and behavioural responses to disbudding in goat kids

    Contributor(s):: Alvarez, L., Gutierrez, J.

    In order to determine the stress response to disbudding, physiological and behavioural response was investigated in disbudded kids and compared with a control group. Disbudded kids (n=14), were disbudded by thermal cauterisation, and control kids (n=15) received the same management without being...

  8. A preliminary study of behaviour-based indicators of pain in cats

    Contributor(s):: Waran, N., Best, L., Williams, V., Salinsky, J., Dale, A., Clarke, N.

    The aim of this preliminary study was to identify key behavioural indicators of pain in cats. The behaviour of cats before and after ovariohysterectomy was analysed using a detailed behavioural ethogram. A comparison of behaviours between cats given pre-operative analgesia only and cats given...

  9. A scoring system to evaluate physical condition and quality of life in geriatric zoo mammals

    Contributor(s):: Follmi, J., Steiger, A., Walzer, C., Robert, N., Geissbuhler, U., Doherr, M. G., Wenker, C.

    The decision to perform euthanasia in geriatric zoo mammals is usually a highly complex procedure involving ethical, medical, emotional and sometimes political factors. However, subsequent necropsies show that the pathological changes of organs and/or the musculoskeletal system are often already...

  10. An evaluation of the suitability of contraceptive methods in golden-headed lion tamarins ( Leontopithecus chrysomelas ), with emphasis on melengestrol acetate (MGA) implants: (II) endocrinological and behavioural effects

    Contributor(s):: Vleeschouwer, K. de, Elsacker, L. van, Heistermann, M., Leus, K.

    In order to be suitable, a contraceptive method should have little or no effects on social organization or behaviour. In callitrichids, changes in socio-sexual interactions between group members, due to hormonal changes induced by contraception, may have consequences for the reproductive...

  11. Aversion to carbon dioxide stunning in pigs: effect of carbon dioxide concentration and halothane genotype

    Contributor(s):: Velarde, A., Cruz, J., Gispert, M., Carrion, D., Torre, J. L. R. de la, Diestre, A., Manteca, X.

    Aversion to the dip-lift stunning system and to the inhalation of 70 and 90% carbon dioxide was assessed in 18 halothane-free (NN) and 14 heterozygous halothane (Nn) slaughter weight pigs using aversion learning techniques and behavioural studies in an experimental slaughterhouse. Pigs were...

  12. Comments from the AZA contraception advisory group on evaluating the suitability of contraceptive methods in golden-headed lion tamarins ( Leontopithecus chrysomelas )

    Contributor(s):: DeMatteo, K. E., Porton, I. J., Asa, C. S.

  13. Development of the short-form Glasgow Composite Measure Pain Scale (CMPS-SF) and derivation of an analgesic intervention score

    Contributor(s):: Reid, J., Nolan, A. M., Hughes, J. M. L., Lascelles, D., Pawson, P., Scott, E. M.

    The Glasgow Composite Measure Pain Scale (CMPS) for dogs suffering acute pain, developed using psychometric methodology, measures pain to a level of precision suitable for clinical trials. However, for routine clinical use, where the emphasis is on speed, ease of use, and guidance for analgesia...

  14. Euthanasia methods, corticosterone and haematocrit levels in Xenopus laevis : evidence for differences in stress?

    Contributor(s):: Archard, G. A., Goldsmith, A. R.

    Amphibians, like other vertebrates, respond to acute stressors by releasing glucocorticoid steroid hormones that mediate physiological and behavioural responses to stress. Measurement of stress hormones provides a potential means to improve the welfare of laboratory animals. For example,...

  15. Housing conditions affect self-administration of anxiolytic by laboratory mice

    Contributor(s):: Sherwin, C. M., Olsson, I. A. S.

    Tests of emotionality conducted outside the home-cage show that rodents from standard laboratory housing are more anxious than animals from enriched housing; however, it is not known if this also indicates increased anxiety within the home-cage. We used a novel method, recording the...

  16. Measurement of aversion to determine humane methods of anaesthesia and euthanasia

    Contributor(s):: Leach, M. C., Bowell, V. A., Allan, T. F., Morton, D. B.

    The distress experienced by animals during the induction of unconsciousness remains one of the most important and yet overlooked aspects of effective methods of anaesthesia and euthanasia. Here, we show that considerable differences exist in the aversive responses elicited by 12 common methods of...

  17. Potential behavioural indicators of post-operative pain in male laboratory rabbits following abdominal surgery

    Contributor(s):: Farnworth, M. J., Walker, J. K., Schweizer, K. A., Chuang, C. L., Guild, S. J., Barrett, C. J., Leach, M. C., Waran, N. K.

    This study aimed to identify behaviours that could be used to assess post-operative pain and analgesic efficacy in male rabbits. In consideration of the 'Three Rs', behavioural data were collected on seven male New Zealand White rabbits in an ethically approved experiment requiring abdominal...

  18. Stress in wild-caught Eurasian otters ( Lutra lutra ): effects of a long-acting neuroleptic and time in captivity

    Contributor(s):: Fernandez-Moran, J., Saavedra, D., Ruiz de la Torre, J. L., Manteca-Vilanova, X.

    As part of a translocation project, 28 Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) were captured from the wild and transported to the Barcelona Zoo for veterinary evaluation, quarantine and intraperitoneal implantation of telemetry devices. Eleven animals were injected with the long-acting neuroleptic (LAN)...

  19. The effect of handling under anaesthetic on the recapture rate of wild ship rats ( Rattus rattus )

    Contributor(s):: Prout, D. M., King, C. M.

    This paper describes a two-part study of small predators in New Zealand forests. First, during 12 days of live-trapping, 31 wild ship rats were captured, tagged and released: 9 were handled while anaesthetised using halothane and 22 were handled while conscious using gloves. There was a...

  20. The Three Rs in the pharmaceutical industry: perspectives of scientists and regulators

    Contributor(s):: Fenwick, N. P., Fraser, D.

    Six drug regulatory reviewers and 11 pharmaceutical industry scientists were interviewed to explore their perspectives on the obstacles and opportunities for greater implementation of the Three Rs (replacement, reduction, refinement) in drug research and development. Participants generally...