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  1. Clicker increases resistance to extinction but does not decrease training time of a simple operant task in domestic dogs ( Canis familiaris )

    | Contributor(s):: Smith, S. M., Davis, E. S.

    Despite its popularity among pet owners and professional trainers, we are not aware of any studies that have investigated the efficacy of clicker training in canines. To this end, we taught 35 basenjis to nose-touch an orange traffic cone. Upon meeting pre-determined criteria, dogs progressed...

  2. Effect of dehorning on behaviour and plasma cortisol responses in young calves

    | Contributor(s):: Morisse, J. P., Cotte, J. P., Huonnic, D.

    Montbeliard calves were dehorned by applying a caustic preparation (potassium hydroxide) at 4 weeks of age or by heat cauterisation at 8 weeks of age. Behavioural studies, of 84 calves (dehorned by heat or chemical treatment, with and without anaesthesia), were monitored by video or by visual...

  3. Intake and behaviour responses by sheep, in different physiological states, when grazing monocultures of grass or white clover

    | Contributor(s):: Penning, P. D., Parsons, A. J., Orr, R. J., Harvey, A., Champion, R. A.

    Monocultures of ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and white clover (Trifolium repens) were maintained at sward surface heights of 3 or 6 cm by continuous variable stocking with groups of sheep. Each group contained 4 lactating ewes, and their twin lambs, plus 2, non-pregnant ewes. Each plot was 0.33 ha...

  4. Physiologic responses during an exhaustive driving test in donkeys: effect of conditioning

    | Contributor(s):: Matthews, N. S., Taylor, T. S., Potter, G. D.

    Improvement in performance following a 1-month conditioning period was tested in five donkeys. The two females and three geldings weighed 235 kg (SD, 54) and were 4 to 8 years old. The donkeys had previously been trained to pull a cart and were accustomed to wearing heart rate monitors. Following...

  5. A note on the effects of co-mingling piglet litters on pre-weaning growth, injuries and responses to behavioural tests

    | Contributor(s):: Kanaan, V. T., Pajor, E. A., Lay, D. C., Jr., Richert, B. T., Garner, J. P.

    The purpose of this study was to determine how co-mingling litters affected piglets' pre-weaning growth, ear injuries, suckling behaviour and responses to behavioural tests used to measure coping abilities. Thirty sows and their respective litters were housed in standard farrowing crates until...

  6. Acid-base responses of fat-adapted horses: relevance to hard work in the heat

    | Contributor(s):: Kronfeld, D. S., Custalow, S. E., Ferrante, P. L., Taylor, L. E., Wilson, J. A., Tiegs, W.

    Feeding and training may affect acid-base responses to strenuous exercise. Acidosis usually correlates with higher blood lactate concentrations during intense exercise, but alkalosis has been found in horses, and higher lactate responses during sprints have been found in fat adapted horses. A...

  7. Approach/avoidance responses of domestic chicks to familiar and unfamiliar video images of biologically neutral stimuli

    | Contributor(s):: Jones, R. B., Larkins, C., Hughes, B. O.

    One-day-old individually housed chickens were exposed to video images of an illuminated blank monitor screen (B) or a coloured, moving, complex screen saver stimulus (SS) for 5 to 10 or 30 min a day for 9 to 11 days. In experiment 1, repeated exposure to the B and SS video images led to an...

  8. Behavioural comparison of layer and broiler fowl: measuring fear responses

    | Contributor(s):: Keer-Keer, S., Hughes, B. O., Hocking, P. M., Jones, R. B.

    Broilers and White Leghorns have different temperaments-White Leghorns are regarded as flighty and broilers as docile. This difference in temperament is sometimes interpreted as a difference between the strains in underlying fearfulness. Five experiments were carried out to compare fear responses...

  9. Behavioural responses of domestic pigs and cattle to humans and novel stimuli

    | Contributor(s):: Hemsworth, P. H., Price, E. O., Borgwardt, R.

    Two experiments were conducted on pigs and beef cattle to study whether or not regular exposure to either humans or novel objects resulted in stimulus-specific or generalised behavioural responses. Groups of pigs and cattle were allocated to one of three treatments: regular brief exposure to...

  10. Behavioural responses to humans and the productivity of commercial broiler chickens

    | Contributor(s):: Hemsworth, P. H., Coleman, G. J., Barnett, J. L., Jones, R. B.

    A higher proportion of birds that had received minimal human contact withdrew as an experimenter approached in a standard test than birds that had received regular human contact (0.77 vs. 0.46) and these birds that had received minimal human contact had higher plasma corticosterone concentrations...

  11. Conditioned approach-avoidance responses to humans: the ability of pigs to associate feeding and aversive social experiences in the presence of humans with humans

    | Contributor(s):: Hemsworth, P. H., Verge, J., Coleman, G. J.

    A series of experiments were conducted to determine whether pigs learn to associate rewarding or aversive elements of a procedure with the handler conducting the procedure. Experiment 1 was conducted to examine whether sexually unreceptive female pigs regularly introduced to boars in their...

  12. Grazing behaviour by heifers on pastures fertilized with different fertilizer categories

    | Contributor(s):: Gjestang, K. E., Tjernshaugen, O., Tveitnes, S.

    In Norway the grazing behaviour of 12 Norwegian Red heifers was examined on fields fertilized with different types of fertilizer, viz. normal slurry (A), aerobic treated slurry and NPK-fertilizer. Thirty tons of manure per hectare were used for the manure-fertilized fields and 0.6 ton for the...

  13. Selection for behavioural traits in farm mink

    | Contributor(s):: Hansen, S. W.

    Over a period of 6 years, >3000 farmed mink were tested for their behavioural response to human contact. Using a simple test (the stick test) repeated for 5 times, the mink were characterized and classified with regard to their response to human contact. Behavioural response that might be caused...

  14. Social and environmental factors influence cattle distribution on rangeland

    | Contributor(s):: Howery, L. D., Provenza, F. D., Banner, R. E., Scott, C. B.

    The distribution patterns of cattle dams (and foster dams) and their offspring while grazing a 1030-ha (about 3 km by 5 km) allotment was studied during the summers of 1990-1993 in Idaho, USA. The primary objective in this 4-year field study was to determine whether yearling and adult offspring...

  15. The post-feeding responses of sows to the daily presentation of food rewards in a test arena

    | Contributor(s):: Haskell, M. J., Terlouw, E. M. C., Lawrence, A. B., Deans, L. A.

    At the beginning of a daily 40 min test period, 12 sows in 4 or 16 msuperscript 2 sand-covered pens were presented with a 1 kg or 18 g feed reward for 26 days. Sows receiving the large feed reward stood for a greater proportion of the time after feed reward consumption than the sows receiving the...

  16. Behavioural, saliva cortisol and heart rate responses to different types of stimuli in dogs

    | Contributor(s):: Beerda, B., Schilder, M. B. H., Hooff, J. A. R. A. M. van, Vries, H. W. de, Mol, J. A.

    Ten dogs of both sexes, different ages and various breeds were each subjected to 6 different stimuli: sound blasts, short electric shocks, a falling bag, an opening umbrella and 2 forms of restraint. Each type of stimulus had been selected for its assumed aversive properties and was administered...

  17. Guard dogs: sleep, work and the behavioural responses to people and other stimuli

    | Contributor(s):: Adams, G. J., Johnson, K. G.

    Sleep-wake cycles and the responses to naturally occurring stimuli were studied in 17 guard dogs; detailed video recordings were made of 10 of these dogs. The guard dogs lived permanently on-site, or were commercially owned and brought on to premises, removed before the workers started and rested...

  18. Response of bonded and non-bonded sheep to the approach of a trained Border Collie

    | Contributor(s):: Anderson, D. M., Hulet, C. V., Shupe, W. L., Smith, J. N., Murray, L. W.

    Intra- and interspecific association of cattle and bonded or non-bonded sheep was observed under free-ranging conditions preceding, during and following the approach of a trained Border Collie dog. A bonded sheep is one which consistently stays in close proximity to cattle as a result of a...

  19. The effects of modifying the amount of human contact on behavioural, physiological and production responses of laying hens

    | Contributor(s):: Barnett, J. L., Hemsworth, P. H., Hennessy, D. P., McCallum, T. H., Newman, E. A.

    White Leghorn x Australorp hens given minimal exposure to humans (regular, but limited, human contact during egg collection, inspections and feeding), showed greater fear of humans, a higher blood corticosterone response to handling and lower hen-day egg production (83.1 vs. 89.4

  20. Responsiveness and perceived intelligence as predictors of speech addressed to cats

    | Contributor(s):: Sims, V. K., Chin, M. G.

    Speech addressed to a cat was examined to test whether the use of child-directed language (CDL) with a companion animal is related to perceived intelligence of a listener and/or listener responsiveness. Fifty-one undergraduates briefly entertained a cat using a toy, and the vast majority of these...