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  1. How to consider the value of farm animals in breeding goals. A review of current status and future challenges. (Special Issue: Animal welfare in a broad perspective. Papers from the Nordic Network of Agriculture and Food Ethics.)

    Contributor(s):: Nielsen, H. M., Olesen, I., Navrud, S., Kolstad, K., Amer, P.

    The objective of this paper is to outline challenges associated with the inclusion of welfare issues in breeding goals for farm animals and to review the currently available methodologies and discuss their potential advantages and limitations to address these challenges. The methodology for...

  2. Issues associated with research on sheep parasite control in New Zealand - a descriptive ethic

    Contributor(s):: Morris, M. C.

    In common with much of the English-speaking world, New Zealanders generally oppose the use of animal experimentation where there is no demonstrable and immediate benefit for human, animal, or environmental health. Intrusive experiments on sheep internal and external parasites published between...

  3. Maize: the Native North American's legacy of cultural diversity and biodiversity

    Contributor(s):: Wertz, S. K.

    Recent research has focused on establishing the values of preserving biodiversity both in agriculture and in less managed ecosystems, and in showing the importance of the role of cultural diversity in preserving biodiversity in food production systems. A study of the philosophy embedded in...

  4. Special Issue: Ethics and the politics of food. (Special Issue: Ethics and the politics of food.)

    Contributor(s):: Lien, M. E., Anthony, R.

    This special issue examines how best to manage food production, distribution and consumption in an ethically viable manner. This issue consists of five papers. The first paper explains the differences between US and EU policies on genetically modified food and crops. The second paper explores the...

  5. The role of cats and dogs in asthma and allergy - a systematic review

    | Contributor(s):: Chen, ChihMei, Tischer, C., Schnappinger, M., Heinrich, J.

    Studies have reported contradictory effects of cat and dog exposure on allergy, resulting in inconsistent recommendations on animal avoidance. We conducted a systematic review of observational studies published in English from 2000 to January 2009. It shows in this review that the reported...

  6. Differential diagnosis and management of human-directed aggression in cats. (Special issue: Clinical veterinary behavior)

    | Contributor(s):: Frank, D., Dehasse, J.

    Human-directed aggression in cats should be evaluated as a multifactorial problem. It results from the combined actions of heredity, environment, learning, human social requirements (or needs), client interactions, lack of understanding of normal feline behaviour, unrealistic client expectations,...

  7. Pet ownership and cardiovascular risk reduction: supporting evidence, conflicting data and underlying mechanisms

    | Contributor(s):: Arhant-Sudhir, K., Arhant-Sudhir, R., Sudhir, K.

    It is widely believed that pet ownership is beneficial to humans and that some of this benefit is through favourable effects on cardiovascular risk. In the present review, we critically examine the evidence in support of this hypothesis and present the available data with respect to major...

  8. A concept of welfare based on reward evaluating mechanisms in the brain: anticipatory behaviour as an indicator for the state of reward systems

    | Contributor(s):: Spruijt, B. M., Bos, R. van den, Pijlman, F. T. A.

    In this review we attempt to link the efficiency by which animals behave (economy of animal behaviour) to a neuronal substrate and subjective states to arrive at a definition of animal welfare which broadens the scope of its study. Welfare is defined as the balance between positive (reward,...

  9. A review of nutritional and motivational factors contributing to the performance of regurgitation and reingestion in captive lowland gorillas ( Gorilla gorilla gorilla )

    | Contributor(s):: Lukas, K. E.

    A review. Regurgitation and reingestion is a common phenomenon in captive lowland gorillas, but it has never been reported in wild populations. Although changes in diet have been shown to reduce the behavior, little is known about the underlying mechanisms that lead to its development and...

  10. Do the stereotypies of pigs, chickens and mink reflect adaptive species differences in the control of foraging?

    | Contributor(s):: Mason, G., Mendl, M.

    Species differences in food-related stereotypies and natural foraging behaviour are discussed, and evolutionary explanations for these species differences, and reasons why apparent species differences in stereotypy may be artefacts of husbandry are postulated.

  11. Effects of different suckling systems on milk production, udder health, reproduction, calf growth and some behavioural aspects in high producing dairy cows - a review. (Special issue: Suckling)

    | Contributor(s):: Krohn, C. C.

    This article discusses the consequences of different suckling systems in industrial countries on milk production, udder health, reproduction and behaviour of high-producing dairy cows, and the effects on the gain, health and behaviour of the calves. The suckling systems are divided into three...

  12. Equine learning: progress and suggestions for future research

    | Contributor(s):: Nicol, C. J.

    Horses are well able to form classical and instrumental associations and so the focus of much recent research is on the stimulus control of instrumental learning. Horses appear to discriminate using spatial cues more easily than other stimulus features, as indicated both by the speed of initial...

  13. Further evaluation of the developmental asynchrony hypothesis of sex ratio variation

    | Contributor(s):: Krackow, S.

    A discussion of differences in the speed of development of male and female blastocysts up to the stage of uterine implantation compared with the developmental stage of the uterus may cause sex ratio biases in response to environmental, physiological and psychological cues. It may also cause sub...

  14. Human-cattle interactions in group housing. (Special Issue: Behaviour and welfare of cattle)

    | Contributor(s):: Raussi, S.

    In traditional European tie stall barns the stockperson has close interaction with the cattle several times a day. New barns are, however, mostly loose housing units where the animals are group housed and normally have space to evade people. As group housed cattle can be less habituated to...

  15. Intersucking in dairy cattle - review and questionnaire. (Special Issue: Behaviour and welfare of cattle)

    | Contributor(s):: Lidfors, L., Isberg, L.

    Intersucking is an abnormal behaviour in dairy heifers and cows, and it is defined by one animal sucking the teat of another animal with the intention of sucking milk. The aim of this paper is to review earlier studies on intersucking in dairy cattle and to present results from a questionnaire...

  16. Investigations on genetic disease resistance in swine - a contribution to the reduction of pain, suffering and damage in farm animals.

    | Contributor(s):: Reiner, G.

    This review deals with genetic disease resistance in pigs as a prospective opportunity to reduce pain, suffering and damage in swine production. Even under favourable terms of housing and management, infectious diseases are wide-spread, and have to be ranked among the major sources for suffering...

  17. Maternal behaviour in Mus musculus sp.: an ethological review

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Weber, E. M., Olsson, I. A. S.

    In this paper, we review the scientific literature on maternal behaviour in commensal house mice and laboratory mice. Similar to other altricial species, female mice prepare a nest before parturition. Once the pups are born, nursing is the main part of maternal behaviour, and pups are weaned...

  18. Medical paradigms for the study of problem behaviour: a critical review. (International Society for Applied Ethology Special Issue)

    | Contributor(s):: Mills, D. S.

    The study of animal behaviour problems is an area of increasing interest in applied ethology. As with the study of abnormal behaviour in humans, there are two broad approaches to this subject, one emphasising the role of the environment and biology of the species in shaping behaviour and other...

  19. Of mice and men: improved welfare through clinical ethology

    | Contributor(s):: Ladewig, J.

    Just as health is characterized primarily by the absence of disease, welfare can be characterized partly by the absence of abnormal behaviour or behaviour problems. Consequently, just as treatment and prevention of disease improves health, treatment and prevention of behaviour problems can...

  20. On the interpretation of feeding behaviour measures and the use of feeding rate as an indicator of social constraint

    | Contributor(s):: Nielsen, B. L.

    Several issues associated with the use and interpretation of feeding behaviour measures are highlighted using examples from the literature on rats, cows and pigs. The inter-relatedness of 6 feeding behaviour variables is illustrated. Different meal patterns adopted to achieve similar intakes are...