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  1. How has the risk of predation shaped the behavioural responses of sheep to fear and distress?

    Contributor(s):: Dwyer, C. M.

    To use behaviours as indicators of stress it is important to understand their underlying causation. For a prey animal in the wild, such as a sheep, behavioural responses have evolved to evade detection and capture by predators. The behavioural responses of the wild ancestors of domestic sheep to...

  2. Individual differences in temperament of domestic animals: a review of methodology

    Contributor(s):: Manteca, X., Deag, J. M.

  3. Mammal trapping: a review of animal welfare standards of killing and restraining traps

    Contributor(s):: Iossa, G., Soulsbury, C. D., Harris, S.

    Millions of wild mammals are trapped annually for fur, pest control and wildlife management. Ensuring the welfare of trapped individuals can only be achieved by trapping methods that meet accepted standards of animal welfare. At the international level, the assessment of mechanical properties of...

  4. Measures of developmental instability as integrated, A Posteriori indicators of farm animal welfare: a review

    Contributor(s):: Tuyttens, F. A. M.

    Developmental instability, of which fluctuating asymmetry is the most commonly used and recommended measure, has recently been claimed to be an objective, integrated and retrospective indicator of animal welfare. The theoretical and empirical grounds for these claims are reviewed. In theory,...

  5. Operant animal welfare: productive approaches and persistent difficulties

    Contributor(s):: Patterson-Kane, E. G., Pittman, M., Pajor, E. A.

    Operant procedures occupy a prominent role within animal welfare science because they provide information about the strength of animals' preferences. It is assumed that strongly motivated choices commonly indicate conditions necessary for uncompromised welfare. A review of the literature shows...

  6. Pain in birds

    Contributor(s):: Gentle, M. J.

    The physiology of pain, pain receptors, behavioural and physiological responses to pain, pain following trauma (including beak amputation), and analgesia in birds are reviewed.

  7. Painful dilemmas: the ethics of animal-based pain research

    Contributor(s):: Magalhaes-Sant'Ana, M., Sandoe, P., Olsson, I. A. S.

    While it has the potential to deliver important human benefits, animal-based pain research raises ethical questions, because it involves inducing pain in sentient beings. Ethical decision-making, connected with this variety of research, requires informed harm-benefit analysis, and the aim of this...

  8. Physiological mechanisms causing sickness behaviour and suffering in diseased animals

    Contributor(s):: Gregory, N. G.

  9. Qualitative categories for the interpretation of sheep welfare: a review

    Contributor(s):: Wemelsfelder, F., Farish, M.

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the relationship between qualitative categories of sheep welfare and associated quantitative behavioural observations. Most scientific studies rely on quantitative measures, however to interpret those measures in terms of an animal's experience of welfare, the...

  10. Regulation of free-roaming cat ( Felis silvestris catus ) populations: a survey of the literature and its application to Israel

    Contributor(s):: Gunther, I., Terkel, J.

  11. Restraint methods of laboratory non-human primates: a critical review

    Contributor(s):: Reinhardt, V., Liss, C., Stevens, C.

  12. Safeguarding the welfare of livestock grazing on nature conservation sites

    Contributor(s):: Grayson, F. W.

    Nature conservationists frequently use domestic livestock to graze unimproved semi-natural vegetation in order to achieve the ecological objectives that they are seeking for the sites that they manage. This paper reviews the role of the Grazing Animals Project in raising awareness of the factors...

  13. Selective breeding of primates for use in research: consequences and challenges

    Contributor(s):: Honess, P., Stanley-Griffiths, M. A., Narainapoulle, S., Naiken, S., Andrianjazalahatra, T.

    Primates are bred in captivity for a number of purposes, from zoo-based captive breeding programmes for conservation to breeding for biomedical research. In each case, breeding animals that are fit for purpose, either as viable candidates for reintroduction or as valid research models, has...

  14. Sensory development in puppies ( Canis lupus f. familiaris ): implications for improving canine welfare

    Contributor(s):: Jones, A. C.

    Despite an auspicious start from which lasting theories were generated (eg critical periods hypothesis, Scott & Marston 1950), and despite recent modern technology enabling biological investigations of sensory development (eg EEG, fMRI), in the last fifty years little attention has been devoted...

  15. Should cages for laying hens be banned or modified?

    Contributor(s):: Appleby, M. C.

  16. Social housing of previously single-caged macaques: what are the options and the risks?

    Contributor(s):: Reinhardt, V., Liss, C., Stevens, C.

  17. Some practical solutions to welfare problems in dog breeding

    Contributor(s):: McGreevy, P. D., Nicholas, F. W.

    This paper reviews the history of established dog breeds, summarizes current health and welfare problems and makes suggestions for their resolution.

  18. Staying good while playing God - the ethics of breeding farm animals

    Contributor(s):: Sandoe, P., Nielsen, B. L., Christensen, L. G., Sorensen, P.

    This review discusses the goals and consequences of farm animal breeding within an ethical context. Firstly, a description is given of what has happened in the broiler and dairy cattle industries as a result of selection for increased production. Secondly, the ethical values that ought to...

  19. Strengthening US organic standards on animal health and welfare

    Contributor(s):: Merrigan, K. A., Bailey, M. R., Lockeretz, W.

    Organic livestock production has been increasing in the US, although it still merely constitutes a small fraction of total production. Its success will require detailed standards supported by scientific knowledge and consistent with organic farming principles. However, such standards, mandated...

  20. Stress and animal welfare

    Contributor(s):: Wiepkema, P. R., Koolhaas, J. M.