Animal dissection and evidence-based life-science and health-professions education
Contributor(s):: Nobis, N.
Author's response to Balcombe's commentators [2000 & 2001 this journal] notes that Balcombe could be motivated by an evidentialist perspective growing out of the work of W. K. Clifford.
Artificial weaning of Old World monkeys: benefits and costs
Contributor(s):: Reinhardt, V.
Permanent mother-infant separation prior to natural weaning is a common husbandry practice in monkey breeding colonies. In the United States, all eight Regional Primate Research Centres have such colonies. Under undisturbed conditions, Old World monkey mothers wean their infants at the age of...
Enhancing nonhuman primate care and welfare through the use of positive reinforcement training
Contributor(s):: Laule, G., Whittaker, M.
Nonhuman primates are excellent subjects for the enhancement of care and welfare through training. The broad range of species offers tremendous behavioral diversity, and individual primates show varying abilities to cope with the stressors of captivity, which differ depending on the venue....
Genetic engineering and other factors that might affect human-animal interactions in the research setting
Contributor(s):: Comber, J., Griffin, G.
Evidence exists, particularly in the welfare literature of nonhuman animals on the farm, that the interaction between nonhuman animals and the personnel who care for them can have a strong effect on the animals' behavior, productivity, and welfare. Among species commonly used for biomedical...
Improving the welfare of captive macaques ( Macaca sp.) through the use of water as enrichment
Contributor(s):: Robins, J. G., Waitt, C. D.
This review evaluates the use of water as a tool for enriching the environments of macaques (Macaca sp.) in captivity. Many macaque species are known to swim and forage in water in the wild, and in-situ reports suggest that access to water promotes activity and cultural behavior. Yet, there is a...
Penetrating captive bolt stunning and exsanguination of cattle in abattoirs
Contributor(s):: Gregory, N., Shaw, F.
Abattoirs commonly use penetrating captive bolt pistols to stun cattle. Humane slaughter requires that an animal immediately becomes unconscious and does not regain consciousness. In this review we consider the concepts of concussion, unconsciousness, and return to consciousness. We conclude that...
Positive reinforcement training as a technique to alter nonhuman primate behavior: quantitative assessments of effectiveness. (Training Nonhuman Primates Using Positive Reinforcement Techniques)
Contributor(s):: Schapiro, S. J., Bloomsmith, M. A., Laule, G. E.
Many suggest that operant conditioning techniques can be applied successfully to improve the behavioral management of nonhuman primates in research settings. However, relatively little empirical data exist to support this claim. This article is a review of several studies that discussed applied...
The concept of dominance and the treatment of aggression in multidog homes: a comment on van Kerkhove's commentary
Contributor(s):: Mertens, P. A.
Comment on "van Kerkhove's Commentary" [2004 this issue] relating to the concept of dominance and the treatment of aggression in multidog homes.
The lifecycle of the farm pig: a review of Welfare of Pigs from Birth to Slaughter [Book Review]
Contributor(s):: Ormandy, E.
A book review of Welfare of pigs from birth to slaughter . Edited by Luigi Faucitano and Allan L. Schaefer. Wageningen, the Netherlands: Wageningen Academic, 2008. 316 pp. ISBN: 9086860664. Hardcover, $127
Visitors' effects on the welfare of animals in the zoo: a review
Contributor(s):: Davey, G.
Since the 1970s, research about zoo visitors' effects on the welfare of nonhuman animals in captivity has intensified. Numerous studies have shown that characteristics such as visitor presence, density, activity, size, and position are associated with animal behavioral and - to a lesser extent...
Equine on-farm welfare assessment: a review of animal-based indicators
Contributor(s):: Costa, E. dalla, Murray, L., Dai, F., Canali, E., Minero, M.
The adaptability of horses and donkeys to different types of activity has seen the European equine industry become an important economic sector, giving rise to increasing concern regarding equine welfare. As part of the AWIN (Animal Welfare Indicators) project, this review focuses on scientific...
Industrial farm animal production: a comprehensive moral critique
| Contributor(s):: Rossi, J., Garner, S. A.
Over the past century, animal agriculture in the United States has transformed from a system of small, family farms to a largely industrialized model-often known as 'industrial farm animal production' (IFAP). This model has successfully produced a large supply of cheap meat, eggs and...
Nutrition for working and service dogs
| Contributor(s):: Wakshlag, J., Shmalberg, J.
Conformation, genetics, and behavioral drive are the major determinants of success in canine athletes, although controllable variables, such as training and nutrition, play an important role. The scope and breadth of canine athletic events has expanded dramatically in the past 30 years, but with...
Review of current evidence and future directions in animal-assisted intervention for children with autism
| Contributor(s):: O'Haire, M. E.
Introduction Autism has been highlighted as a pressing public health issue that may be ameliorated through the inclusion of animals in autism treatment services, also known as animal-assisted intervention. Over the past 20 years, only a few studies have empirically examined the impact of...
An evaluative review of theories: related to animal cruelty
| Contributor(s):: Gullone, E.
The two dominant theories relating to animal cruelty are critically reviewed. These are the violence graduation hypothesis and the deviance generalization hypothesis. The outcomes indicate very high consistency with the broader antisocial behavior and aggression literature, which is large and...
An overview of the dog-human dyad and ethograms within it
| Contributor(s):: McGreevy, P. D., Starling, M., Branson, N. J., Cobb, M. L., Calnon, D.
This article reviews the literature on the complex and variable nature of the dog-human dyad and describes the influence of terms such as "dominance" on attitudes that humans have toward dogs. It highlights a legacy of tension between ethology and psychology and notes that some practitioners have...
Animal-assisted interventions in children's hospitals: a critical review of the literature
| Contributor(s):: Chur-Hansen, A., McArthur, M., Winefield, H., Hanieh, E., Hazel, S.
There is a perception in the scientific and general communities that hospitalized children benefit from visits by animals. Animal-assisted interventions (AAI), including animal-assisted therapy and animal-assisted activities, usually involving dogs, are thus employed in pediatric hospitals....
Are land deals unethical? The ethics of large-scale land acquisitions in developing countries
| Contributor(s):: Toft, K. H.
Proponents of large-scale land acquisitions (LaSLA) argue that poor countries could benefit from foreign direct investment in land (World Bank 2011), while opponents argue that LaSLA is nothing more than neo-colonial theft of poor peasants' livelihoods, i.e., land grabbing (Borras and Franco in...
Camels out of place and time: the dromedary ( Camelus dromedarius) in Australia
| Contributor(s):: Crowley, S. L.
The deserts of the Australian outback are ideal territories for dromedary camels, Camelus dromedarius. Dromedaries' flexible adaptations allow them to eat 80% of Australian plant species and they obtain much of their water through ingesting vegetation; they thrive where other species perish. In...
Does the current regulation of assisted reproductive techniques in the UK safeguard animal welfare?
| Contributor(s):: Campbell, M. L. H.
Reproductive medicine is one of the fastest developing fields of veterinary medicine. Regulation of veterinary-assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) is currently divided between the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act (1986), the Veterinary Surgeons Act (1966), and the Animal Welfare Act...