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  1. Effects of environmental enrichment for mice: variation in experimental results

    Contributor(s):: Weerd, H. A. van de, Aarsen, E. L., Mulder, A., Kruitwagen, C. L. J. J., Hendriksen, C. F. M., Baumans, V.

    This study focused on the effects of different enriched environments for mice in a number of behavioural and physiological parameters in 2 routine laboratory testing procedures: potency testing for tetanus vaccine and stress-induced hyperthermia. The variability in the results was studied by...

  2. Environmental Enrichment for Laboratory Rodents: Animal Welfare and the Methods of Science

    Contributor(s):: Galef Jr, Bennett G.

    Focuses on the environmental enrichment of laboratory rodents. Importance of objective and measurable goals in the environmental enrichment program for rodents; Psychological welfare of rodents as the main goal of most environmental enrichment procedures; Effects of environmental enrichment on...

  3. Genetic engineering and other factors that might affect human-animal interactions in the research setting

    Contributor(s):: Comber, J., Griffin, G.

    Evidence exists, particularly in the welfare literature of nonhuman animals on the farm, that the interaction between nonhuman animals and the personnel who care for them can have a strong effect on the animals' behavior, productivity, and welfare. Among species commonly used for biomedical...

  4. Genetically modified laboratory animals - what welfare problems do they face?

    Contributor(s):: Buehr, M., Hjorth, P. J., Hansen, A. K., Sandoe, P.

    In this article, we respond to public concern expressed about the welfare of genetically modified (GM) non-human animals. As a contribution to the debate on this subject, we attempt in this article to determine in what situations the practice of genetic modification in rodents may generate...

  5. Improved nonhuman animal welfare is related more to income equality than it is to income

    Contributor(s):: Morris, M. C.

    The link between nonhuman animal welfare, income, and income inequality (Gini coefficient) was tested using consumption of animal products, laws protecting animals on the farm from the worst abuses, and animals used in experimentation as indicators. Experimentation on all animals and on rodents...

  6. Is there evidence of learned helplessness in horses? (Special Issue: Equitation science.)

    Contributor(s):: Hall, C., Goodwin, D., Heleski, C., Randle, H., Waran, N.

    Learned helplessness is a psychological condition whereby individuals learn that they have no control over unpleasant or harmful conditions, that their actions are futile, and that they are helpless. In a series of experiments in which dogs were exposed to inescapable shocks, this lack of control...

  7. Laboratory rodent welfare: thinking outside the cage

    Contributor(s):: Balcombe, J.

    This commentary presents the case against housing rats and mice in laboratory cages; the commentary bases its case on their sentience, natural history, and the varied detriments of laboratory conditions. The commentary gives 5 arguments to support this position: (a) rats and mice have a high...

  8. Phenotype characterization and welfare assessment of transgenic rodents (mice)

    Contributor(s):: Mertens, C., Rulicke, T.

    Methods of transgenesis in vertebrate animals in the laboratory involve the stable addition or selective substitution of defined genes into the germline. Although there is a continuous and remarkable development in transgenic technology-the quality of transgenes, gene-targeting vectors, and...

  9. Prolonged pain research in mice: trends in reference to the 3Rs

    Contributor(s):: Balcombe, J., Ferdowsian, H., Briese, L.

    This literature review documents trends in the use of mice in prolonged pain research, defined herein as research that subjects mice to a source of pain for at least 14 days. The total amount of prolonged pain research on mice has increased dramatically in the past decade for the 3 pain...

  10. Rat's demand for group size

    Contributor(s):: Patterson-Kane, E. P., Hunt, M., Harper, D.

    Social isolation compromises the welfare of rats. However, it is not clear how many rats should be housed together under laboratory conditions. Pair housing, sometimes recommended over group housing, may help avoid aggression and disease transmission. Female rats, however, showed the highest...

  11. The development of a novel form of mouse cage enrichment

    Contributor(s):: Leach, M. C., Ambrose, N., Bowell, V. J., Morton, D. B.

    This article describes the design and testing of a novel form of mouse cage enrichment. A cage insert was designed and developed to fulfill a number of enrichment goals pertaining to its effectiveness and practicality (i.e., to improve the environment of mice in laboratories while causing the...

  12. The effects of chronic exposure to common bedding materials on the metabolic rate and overall health of male CD-1 mice

    Contributor(s):: Becker, C. E., Mathur, C. F., Rehnberg, B. G.

    Anecdotes and personal Web pages claim that cedar and pine beddings cause respiratory distress in rodents, although no previous research could be found to support these claims. There have, however, been published studies of respiratory distress in cedar and pine mill workers. That research links...

  13. The effects of environmental control on cognition in rats ( Rattus norvegicus )

    Contributor(s):: Alliger, A. A., Moller, P.

    The aim of this study was to allow nonhuman animals to control their environment using operant conditioning procedures and to assess the effect of control on cognitive tasks. The study tested 4 predictions: (a) rats (Rattus norvegicus) will control a light stimulus; (b) animals will exhibit...

  14. The influence of the location of a nest box in an individually ventilated cage on the preference of mice to use it

    Contributor(s):: Kostomitsopoulos, N. G., Paronis, E., Alexakos, P., Balafas, E., Loo, P. van, Baumans, V.

    The improvement of housing conditions for mice by using environmental enrichment materials is of high concern for the scientific community. Plastic, autoclavable nest boxes are commercially available and ready to use for specific cases such as in individually ventilated cages, metabolic cages, or...

  15. The physiological and behavioural impact of sensory contact among unfamiliar adult mice in the laboratory

    Contributor(s):: Rettich, A., Kasermann, H. P., Pelczar, P., Burki, K., Arras, M.

    Housing mice in the laboratory in groups enables social interaction and is the way a laboratory should house mice. However, adult males show reciprocal aggression and are therefore frequently housed individually. Alternatively, a grid divider, which allows sensory contact by sight and smell but...

  16. The use of cage enrichment to reduce male mouse aggression

    Contributor(s):: Ambrose, N., Morton, D. B.

    The complete cleaning of cages has been shown to reduce the level of intermale aggression in mice. This study investigated the effects of the addition of enrichment objects on post cage-cleaning aggression in male BALB/c mice. Enrichment objects were found to significantly reduce aggressive...

  17. There's a rat in my room! Now what? Mice show no chronic physiological response to the presence of rats

    Contributor(s):: Meijer, M. K., Loo, P. L. P. van, Baumans, V.

    In general, guidelines on housing and care of animals in the laboratory state that rats and mice should not be housed in the same room. Mice may perceive rats as predators. Although one theory says this can cause stress, there is little scientific evidence to support this theory. In the wild,...

  18. Thinking outside our cages

    Contributor(s):: Patterson-Kane, E.

    Researchers seem to be stuck reiterating the now-familiar argument that barren boxes are bad for welfare and that rodents are due ethical consideration. But the prerequisites for real progress are new kinds of arguments, new types of data, and removal of very real practical and cultural obstacles...

  19. Understanding attitudes toward the control of nonnative wild and feral mammals: similarities and differences in the opinions of the general public, animal protectionists, and conservationists in New Zealand (Aotearoa)

    Contributor(s):: Farnworth, M. J., Watson, H., Adams, N. J.

    Lethal control is used extensively in New Zealand to control nonnative nonhuman mammals. Respondents were surveyed about 8 mammal groups considered pests and their attitudes toward their control and pest status. They also identified the most appropriate method of control for the 8 different...

  20. Urinary corticosterone levels in mice in response to intraperitoneal injections with saline

    Contributor(s):: Meijer, M. K., Lemmens, A. G., Zutphen, B. F. M. van, Baumans, V.

    The concept of refinement is an important issue in the field of laboratory animal science. Refinement-based research aims to improve animal welfare, to increase the reliability of experimental outcome, and to diminish variation. In search of refinement of experimental techniques, this study...