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  1. Behavioral assessment of intermittent wheel running and individual housing in mice in the laboratory

    Contributor(s):: Pham, T. M., Brene, S., Baumans, V.

    Physical cage enrichment - exercise devices for rodents in the laboratory - often includes running wheels. This study compared responses of mice in enriched physical and social conditions and in standard social conditions to wheel running, individual housing, and open-field test. The study...

  2. Cage size preference in rats in the laboratory

    Contributor(s):: Patterson-Kane, E. G.

    The size of an enclosure is an integral part of how well it accommodates a nonhuman animal's welfare; however, most enrichment studies concentrate on modifying the area inside the enclosure rather than enlarging it. It has been suggested that rats have little need for more cage space, but there...

  3. Do audible and ultrasonic sounds of intensities common in animal facilities affect the autonomic nervous system of rodents?

    Contributor(s):: Burwell, A. K., Baldwin, A. L.

    In animal facilities, noises, often poorly controlled, occur over a wide range of frequencies and intensities. Evidence demonstrates that audible noise and ultrasound have deleterious effects on rodent physiology, but it is not known how they affect the autonomic nervous system (ANS). This study...

  4. Do male mice prefer or avoid each other's company? Influence of hierarchy, kinship, and familiarity

    Contributor(s):: Loo, P. L. P. van, Groot, A. C. de, Zutphen, B. F. M. van, Baumans, V.

    In the laboratory, individual housing of male mice who otherwise show aggression is common practice. Because mice are a social species, the question arises whether this procedure is right from the animals' point of view. This study tested the preference of subordinate animals for their dominant...

  5. Effects of environmental complexity and temporary captivity on foraging behavior of wild-caught meadow voles

    Contributor(s):: Kozuch, A. E., McPhee, M. E.

    Increased housing of wild nonhuman animals in captivity for conservation, research, and rehabilitation has revealed the importance of systematically analyzing effects of the captive environment on behavior. This study focused on the effects of complexity and time held in captivity on foraging...

  6. Effects of environmental enrichment for mice: variation in experimental results

    Contributor(s):: Weerd, H. A. van de, Aarsen, E. L., Mulder, A., Kruitwagen, C. L. J. J., Hendriksen, C. F. M., Baumans, V.

    This study focused on the effects of different enriched environments for mice in a number of behavioural and physiological parameters in 2 routine laboratory testing procedures: potency testing for tetanus vaccine and stress-induced hyperthermia. The variability in the results was studied by...

  7. Environmental Enrichment for Laboratory Rodents: Animal Welfare and the Methods of Science

    Contributor(s):: Galef Jr, Bennett G.

    Focuses on the environmental enrichment of laboratory rodents. Importance of objective and measurable goals in the environmental enrichment program for rodents; Psychological welfare of rodents as the main goal of most environmental enrichment procedures; Effects of environmental enrichment on...

  8. Genetic engineering and other factors that might affect human-animal interactions in the research setting

    Contributor(s):: Comber, J., Griffin, G.

    Evidence exists, particularly in the welfare literature of nonhuman animals on the farm, that the interaction between nonhuman animals and the personnel who care for them can have a strong effect on the animals' behavior, productivity, and welfare. Among species commonly used for biomedical...

  9. Genetically modified laboratory animals - what welfare problems do they face?

    Contributor(s):: Buehr, M., Hjorth, P. J., Hansen, A. K., Sandoe, P.

    In this article, we respond to public concern expressed about the welfare of genetically modified (GM) non-human animals. As a contribution to the debate on this subject, we attempt in this article to determine in what situations the practice of genetic modification in rodents may generate...

  10. Improved nonhuman animal welfare is related more to income equality than it is to income

    Contributor(s):: Morris, M. C.

    The link between nonhuman animal welfare, income, and income inequality (Gini coefficient) was tested using consumption of animal products, laws protecting animals on the farm from the worst abuses, and animals used in experimentation as indicators. Experimentation on all animals and on rodents...

  11. Is there evidence of learned helplessness in horses? (Special Issue: Equitation science.)

    Contributor(s):: Hall, C., Goodwin, D., Heleski, C., Randle, H., Waran, N.

    Learned helplessness is a psychological condition whereby individuals learn that they have no control over unpleasant or harmful conditions, that their actions are futile, and that they are helpless. In a series of experiments in which dogs were exposed to inescapable shocks, this lack of control...

  12. Laboratory rodent welfare: thinking outside the cage

    Contributor(s):: Balcombe, J.

    This commentary presents the case against housing rats and mice in laboratory cages; the commentary bases its case on their sentience, natural history, and the varied detriments of laboratory conditions. The commentary gives 5 arguments to support this position: (a) rats and mice have a high...

  13. Phenotype characterization and welfare assessment of transgenic rodents (mice)

    Contributor(s):: Mertens, C., Rulicke, T.

    Methods of transgenesis in vertebrate animals in the laboratory involve the stable addition or selective substitution of defined genes into the germline. Although there is a continuous and remarkable development in transgenic technology-the quality of transgenes, gene-targeting vectors, and...

  14. Prolonged pain research in mice: trends in reference to the 3Rs

    Contributor(s):: Balcombe, J., Ferdowsian, H., Briese, L.

    This literature review documents trends in the use of mice in prolonged pain research, defined herein as research that subjects mice to a source of pain for at least 14 days. The total amount of prolonged pain research on mice has increased dramatically in the past decade for the 3 pain...

  15. Rat's demand for group size

    Contributor(s):: Patterson-Kane, E. P., Hunt, M., Harper, D.

    Social isolation compromises the welfare of rats. However, it is not clear how many rats should be housed together under laboratory conditions. Pair housing, sometimes recommended over group housing, may help avoid aggression and disease transmission. Female rats, however, showed the highest...

  16. The development of a novel form of mouse cage enrichment

    Contributor(s):: Leach, M. C., Ambrose, N., Bowell, V. J., Morton, D. B.

    This article describes the design and testing of a novel form of mouse cage enrichment. A cage insert was designed and developed to fulfill a number of enrichment goals pertaining to its effectiveness and practicality (i.e., to improve the environment of mice in laboratories while causing the...

  17. The effects of chronic exposure to common bedding materials on the metabolic rate and overall health of male CD-1 mice

    Contributor(s):: Becker, C. E., Mathur, C. F., Rehnberg, B. G.

    Anecdotes and personal Web pages claim that cedar and pine beddings cause respiratory distress in rodents, although no previous research could be found to support these claims. There have, however, been published studies of respiratory distress in cedar and pine mill workers. That research links...

  18. The effects of environmental control on cognition in rats ( Rattus norvegicus )

    Contributor(s):: Alliger, A. A., Moller, P.

    The aim of this study was to allow nonhuman animals to control their environment using operant conditioning procedures and to assess the effect of control on cognitive tasks. The study tested 4 predictions: (a) rats (Rattus norvegicus) will control a light stimulus; (b) animals will exhibit...

  19. The influence of the location of a nest box in an individually ventilated cage on the preference of mice to use it

    Contributor(s):: Kostomitsopoulos, N. G., Paronis, E., Alexakos, P., Balafas, E., Loo, P. van, Baumans, V.

    The improvement of housing conditions for mice by using environmental enrichment materials is of high concern for the scientific community. Plastic, autoclavable nest boxes are commercially available and ready to use for specific cases such as in individually ventilated cages, metabolic cages, or...

  20. The physiological and behavioural impact of sensory contact among unfamiliar adult mice in the laboratory

    Contributor(s):: Rettich, A., Kasermann, H. P., Pelczar, P., Burki, K., Arras, M.

    Housing mice in the laboratory in groups enables social interaction and is the way a laboratory should house mice. However, adult males show reciprocal aggression and are therefore frequently housed individually. Alternatively, a grid divider, which allows sensory contact by sight and smell but...