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  1. A novel protocol to measure startle magnitude in sheep

    Contributor(s):: Salvin, Hannah, Cafe, Linda, Lees, Angela, Morris, Stephen, Lee, Caroline

    Temperament is a trait of interest as it impacts ease of handling, production and reactivity to stressful situations. Excessive behavioural reactivity, as an aspect of temperament, may lead to reduced welfare and stockperson safety. Current tests of behavioural reactivity involve isolating the...

  2. Thermography as a Non-Invasive Measure of Stress and Fear of Humans in Sheep

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Simona Cannas, Clara Palestrini, Elisabetta Canali, Bruno Cozzi, Nicola Ferri, Eugenio Heinzl, Michela Minero, Matteo Chincarini, Giorgio Vignola, Emanuela Dalla Costa

    No data have been published on the use of infrared thermography (IRT) to evaluate sheep emotions. We assessed whether this technique can be used as a non-invasive measure of negative emotions. Two voluntary animal approach (VAA) tests were conducted (and filmed) on five ewes before and after...

  3. Avaliação do comportamento e do stresse de ovelhas sujeitas a um teste de interação homem-animal. Utilização da técnica de termografia de infravermelhos.

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Antónia Luísa de Carvalho Ferreira Afonso

    O objetivo desta tese de mestrado foi avaliar o comportamento e o stresse em ovelhas das raças Ide de-France (IF) e Churra-da-Terra-Quente (CTQ) sujeitas a um teste de interação homem-animal (teste parque ou de arena). Foi realizada uma análise de imagens...

  4. Foraging Behavior Patterns of Sheep and Horses Under a Mixed Species Grazing System

    | Contributor(s):: Patkowski, Krzysztof, Pluta, Michał, Lipiec, Antoni, Greguła-Kania, Monika, Gruszecki, Tomasz M.

    The research objective was to assess the behavior patterns of the Polish Konik horse breed and the Uhruska variety of the Polish Lowland Sheep breed under a mixed-grazing system, and their relationship with climatic factors. The observation included 4 adult horses, 27 ewes with lambs and 10...

  5. Visual discrimination learning and spatial acuity in sheep

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Sugnaseelan, Sumita, Prescott, Neville B., Broom, Donald M., Wathes, Christopher M., Phillips, Clive J. C.

    Visual acuity is an important component of environmental recognition in sheep, yet knowledge about it is limited in this or other herbivorous species. We tested the ability of British Friesland×Texel female lambs to discriminate black and white square-wave gratings, presented vertically...

  6. Performance of sheep in a spatial maze is impeded by negative stimuli

    | Contributor(s):: Doyle, Rebecca E., Freire, Rafael, Cowling, Ann, Knott, Stephanie A., Lee, Caroline

    Exposure to negative stimuli or stress can manifest in general changes in cognitive processing. This study aimed to investigate if a spatial maze task could be used to identify stress-induced differences in the cognitive performance of sheep. Two negative stimuli were used to test the hypothesis....

  7. Inter-observer reliability of Qualitative Behavioural Assessments of sheep

    | Contributor(s):: Phythian, Clare, Michalopoulou, Eleni, Duncan, Jennifer, Wemelsfelder, Françoise

    Qualitative Behaviour Assessment (QBA) is whole-animal methodology that assesses the expressive qualities of animal demeanour using descriptors such as ‘relaxed’, ‘anxious’ or ‘content’. This study aimed to examine the inter-observer reliability of 12 fixed-list QBA descriptors for sheep that had...

  8. The importance of diet choice on stress-related responses by lambs

    | Contributor(s):: Catanese, Francisco, Obelar, Marianela, Villalba, Juan J., Distel, Roberto A.

    Farm animals are commonly restricted to a reduced array of foods, like total mixed rations or pastures with low species diversity. Under these conditions, animals are less likely to satisfy their specific and changing nutrient requirements. In addition, foods and flavors eaten too frequently or...

  9. Generating positive affective states in sheep: The influence of food rewards and opioid administration

    | Contributor(s):: Verbeek, Else, Ferguson, Drewe, Quinquet de Monjour, Patrick, Lee, Caroline

    This study investigated the involvement of the opioid system in modulating the affective state after the consumption of palatable and unpalatable rewards, using judgement bias as an indicator of the affective state. We hypothesised that consuming a palatable food reward would generate a more...

  10. The effect of social buffering on fear responses in sheep (Ovis aries)

    | Contributor(s):: González, Matilú, Averós, Xavier, Heredia, Ina Beltrán de, Ruiz, Roberto, Arranz, Josune, Estevez, Inma

    Fear in farm animals has been extensively studied because of its close relation to animal welfare. Numerous studies have categorized the behavioral responses of animals to stimuli that can elicit a fear reaction under social isolation conditions. However, farm animals are highly social and...

  11. Effect of breed and lithium chloride dose on the conditioned aversion to olive tree leaves (Olea europaea L.) of sheep

    | Contributor(s):: Manuelian, Carmen L., Albanell, Elena, Rovai, Maristela, Salama, Ahmed A. K., Caja, Gerardo

    Grazing maybe an efficient tool for controlling weed cover in olive groves. However, olive leaves are very palatable for sheep, which damages the trees and compromised the later olive production. Lithium chloride (LiCl) is an effective agent for creating food aversion in ruminants through the...

  12. Chronic stress induces pessimistic-like judgment and learning deficits in sheep

    | Contributor(s):: Destrez, Alexandra, Deiss, Véronique, Lévy, Frédéric, Calandreau, Ludovic, Lee, Caroline, Chaillou-Sagon, Elodie, Boissy, Alain

    Chronic stress can be described as a long-term negative affective state induced by an accumulation of negative emotional experiences that alters an individual's interactions with the environment. In humans, chronic stress induces both persistent judgment biases and learning deficits. We...

  13. The behaviour of gestating dairy ewes under different space allowances

    | Contributor(s):: Averós, Xavier, Lorea, Areta, de Heredia, Ignacia Beltrán, Ruiz, Roberto, Marchewka, Joanna, Arranz, Josune, Estevez, Inma

    Provision of adequate housing is essential to assure the welfare of farm animals. One relevant aspect is space allowance, due to potential consequences on the behaviour and welfare of animals. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of space allowance on the behaviour and...

  14. Validation of an algorithm for real-time measurement of sheep activity in confinement by recording movement within a commercial weighing crate

    | Contributor(s):: Horton, Brian J., Miller, Dale R.

    This study reports a method of measuring sheep activity in confinement based on recording movement of sheep during weighing. The aim was to show that an algorithm to analyse continuous weight records could be used to measure activity quickly and efficiently using commercial weighing equipment and...

  15. Social transmission of physiological and behavioural responses to castration in suckling Merino lambs

    | Contributor(s):: Colditz, Ian G., Paull, David R., Lee, Caroline

    In social species like sheep, social context can modify both physiological and behavioural responses to stressors and normal behavioural patterns. Presence of conspecifics can ameliorate responses to noxious stimuli, an effect termed social buffering, whereas the presence of a distressed...

  16. Sheep exhibit a positive judgement bias and stress-induced hyperthermia following shearing

    | Contributor(s):: Sanger, Maree E., Doyle, Rebecca E., Hinch, Geoff N., Lee, Caroline

    The detection of judgement biases may improve welfare evaluations by measuring the cognitive component, particularly the valence, of affective states. Judgement biases have been successfully demonstrated in various laboratory animals but only recently in sheep. Chronic stressors have been found...

  17. Separation distress in artificially-reared lambs depends on human presence and the number of conspecifics

    | Contributor(s):: Rault, Jean-Loup, Boissy, Alain, Boivin, Xavier

    The way animals perceive partners, including humans, is yet relatively unknown. Research has shown that humans can provide social support or act as social substitute for domestic animals. Nonetheless, studies investigating the perception of humans by domestic animals in their social environment,...

  18. Opioid control of behaviour in sheep: Effects of morphine and naloxone on food intake, activity and the affective state

    | Contributor(s):: Verbeek, Else, Ferguson, Drewe, Quinquet de Monjour, Patrick, Lee, Caroline

    The affective states of animals are important determinants of welfare, yet they are poorly understood. Here we investigate opioid involvement in the regulation of behaviours that may be indicative of the arousal and valence components of affective states in sheep. Ewes treated with sterile water...

  19. Measuring empathic responses in animals

    | Contributor(s):: Edgar, J. L., Nicol, C. J., Clark, C. C. A., Paul, E. S.

    Domestic animals may be frequently exposed to situations in which they witness the distress or pain of conspecifics and the extent to which they are affected by this will depend on their capacity for empathy. Empathy encompasses two partially distinct sets of processes concerned with the...

  20. Measures of behavioural reactivity and their relationships with production traits in sheep: A review

    | Contributor(s):: Dodd, Cathy L., Pitchford, Wayne S., Hocking Edwards, Janelle E., Hazel, Susan J.

    This paper defines the concept of temperament and discusses the use of behavioural reactivity testing in sheep. The range of behavioural tests used in sheep are categorised and the aspects of behaviour reflected by each type of test discussed. The activation of nervous and endocrine pathways is...