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  1. How has the risk of predation shaped the behavioural responses of sheep to fear and distress?

    Contributor(s):: Dwyer, C. M.

    To use behaviours as indicators of stress it is important to understand their underlying causation. For a prey animal in the wild, such as a sheep, behavioural responses have evolved to evade detection and capture by predators. The behavioural responses of the wild ancestors of domestic sheep to...

  2. Meta-analysis - a systematic and quantitative review of animal experiments to maximise the information derived

    Contributor(s):: Phillips, C. J. C.

    Meta-analysis provides a tool to statistically aggregate data from existing randomised controlled animal experiments. The results can then be summarised across a range of conditions and an increased pool of experimental data can be subjected to statistical analysis. New information can be...

  3. Methods for measuring feeding motivation in sheep

    Contributor(s):: Jackson, R. E., Waran, N. K., Cockram, M. S.

    An operant crate and a push-door were used to measure feeding motivation in Suffolk sheep (2-4 years of age) after 0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h without feed. In experiment 1 (n=12), sheep had to push a panel with their noses to obtain a feed reward. In experiment 2 (n=14), sheep had to run a race and...

  4. Qualitative categories for the interpretation of sheep welfare: a review

    Contributor(s):: Wemelsfelder, F., Farish, M.

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the relationship between qualitative categories of sheep welfare and associated quantitative behavioural observations. Most scientific studies rely on quantitative measures, however to interpret those measures in terms of an animal's experience of welfare, the...

  5. Selection for easier managed sheep

    Contributor(s):: Conington, J., Collins, J., Dwyer, C.

    Current alterations in the farm environment, such as a reduced number of farm workers, may mean that sheep genotypes that are highly dependent on man for nutritional and reproductive success will experience poorer welfare within that environment. In the past 30 years, average flock size has...

  6. Self-evaluation of animal welfare by the farmer: a report of application on Austrian cattle farms

    Contributor(s):: Ofner, E., Schmid, E., Schrock, E., Troxler, J., Hausleitner, A.

    It is not sufficient to merely publish regulations and strictly control them to improve the living conditions of farm animals. The farmer must receive precise information, understand the individual measures and be able to act with personal responsibility. A new animal welfare law has been in...

  7. Some factors affecting resting behaviour of sheep in slaughterhouse lairages after transport from farms

    Contributor(s):: Jarvis, A. M., Cockram, M. S.

    The resting behaviour of 64 groups of sheep was observed in the lairages of 2 slaughterhouses after transport for about 4 hours in a commercial livestock transporter. The sheep were watched at 5 minute intervals for the initial 3 hours in the lairage pen. The median percentage of time spent lying...

  8. Stakeholders' assessment of welfare indicators for sheep and cattle exported by sea from Australia

    Contributor(s):: Pines, M. K., Petherick, J. C., Gaughan, J. B., Phillips, C. J. C.

    An adaptive conjoint analysis was used to evaluate stakeholders' opinion of welfare indicators for ship-transported sheep and cattle, both onboard and in pre-export depots. In consultations with two nominees of each identified stakeholder group (government officials, animal welfare...

  9. Stress hormone responses of sheep to food and water deprivation at high and low ambient temperatures

    Contributor(s):: Parrott, R. F., Lloyd, D. M., Goode, J. A.

    Eight Clun Forest wethers were used to study the effects of feed and/or water deprivation at different ambient temperatures (7 or 35 degrees C) on stress hormone release. Blood samples were taken from catheterized animals at the start and at 6 h intervals during 48 h tests in an environmental...

  10. Taking lambs to the slaughter: marketing channels, journey structures and possible consequences for welfare

    Contributor(s):: Murray, K. C., Davies, D. H., Cullinane, S. L., Eddison, J. C., Kirk, J. A.

    Consumers now demand evidence of welfare assurance at all stages of animal production, marketing, transport and slaughter. In response, retailers have increasingly adopted preferred supply chain relationships which preclude sourcing animals via livestock auction markets. One of the criteria...

  11. The effect of transport on core and peripheral body temperatures and heart rate of sheep

    Contributor(s):: Ingram, J. R., Cook, C. J., Harris, P. J.

    The effect of transport on core and peripheral body temperatures and heart rate was assessed in ten 18-month-old Coopworth ewes (Ovis aries). Manual recordings of core (rectal) temperatures were obtained and automated logging of peripheral (external auditory canal and pinna) temperatures and...

  12. The effects of 24 h water deprivation when associated with some aspects of transportation on the behaviour and blood chemistry of sheep

    Contributor(s):: Jackson, R. E., Cockram, M. S., Goddard, P. J., Doherty, O. M., McGilp, I. M., Waran, N. K.

    In a 2x2 factorial experiment, groups of 6 sheep were moved from individual pens where they had access to hay and water to environmental chambers kept at either 14 degrees C or 21 degrees C. Within each chamber, half the sheep had access to water but they were all kept at a space allowance of...

  13. The use of a hand-held algometer as a method to measure mechanical nociceptive thresholds in sheep

    Contributor(s):: Stubsjoen, S. M., Valle, P. S., Zanella, A. J.

    The aim of this study was to explore the use of a hand-held algometer for the measurement of mechanical nociceptive thresholds (MNT) in sheep (Ovis aries). Twelve ewes were tested over three consecutive days by two operators, and MNTs were measured over six predetermined sites on both forelimbs...

  14. The welfare implications of shepherding during lambing in extensive New Zealand farming systems

    Contributor(s):: Fisher, M. W., Mellor, D. J.

  15. Transport stress and exercise hyperthermia recorded in sheep by radiotelemetry

    Contributor(s):: Parrott, R. F., Lloyd, D. M., Brown, D.

    Deep body temperature was measured in 4 wethers and 4 ewes surgically implanted with telemetry devices. Records were taken over several days in the home pen (baseline data) and also in response to 3 potentially stressful procedures; transport, exposure to a sheepdog and forced exercise. Loading...

  16. Why are sheep lame? Temporal associations between severity of foot lesions and severity of lameness in 60 sheep

    Contributor(s):: Kaler, J., George, T. R. N., Green, L. E.

    We investigated the temporal associations between the severity of foot lesions caused by footrot (FR) and the severity of lameness in sheep. Sixty sheep from one farm were monitored for five weeks. The locomotion of each sheep was scored once each week using a validated numerical rating scale of...

  17. Brebis, agneaux à viande et prairies au domaine de Roussergue (Penne-du-Tarn, Tarn) = Ewes, lambs and meadows in the Roussergue property (Penne-du-Tarn, Tarn)

    Contributor(s):: Ruas, Marie-Pierre, Rendu, Christine, Albéro, Thierry, Vigne, Jean-Denis

  18. La mémoire longue d'une métissage : la "métisse" ou la race ovine mérinos d'Arles = Story of crossbreeding : the "métisse" or the Merino sheep of Arles

    Contributor(s):: Fabre, Patrick, Lebaudy, Guillaume

  19. Late medieval tawyers' waste and pig skeletons in early post-medieval pits from Bonners Lane, Leicester, England, U.K

    Contributor(s):: Baxter, Ian L.

  20. Modern frame of reference for ewes in the "southern pre-Alps" (Digne, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, France): husbandry practices and dental

    Contributor(s):: Blaise, Emilie