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  1. ‘Beware, I am big and non-dangerous!’ – Playfully growling dogs are perceived larger than their actual size by their canine audience

    Contributor(s):: Bálint, Anna, Faragó, Tamás, Dóka, Antal, Miklósi, Ádám, Pongrácz, Péter

    Nonhuman animals often use specific signals to initiate playful interactions. There is evidence also for different forms of play-maintenance. Playful encounters include out-of-context and exaggerated behavioural sequences. Scientists have already collected knowledge about virtual size...

  2. Impact of environmental enrichment and social group size in the aggressiveness and foraging activity of Serrapinnus notomelas

    Contributor(s):: da Silva, Alexandre, Lima, Marcos R., Meletti, Paulo C., Jerep, Fernando C.

    Fish are widely used in scientific research, and many species are bred for ornamental purposes and human consumption. Despite the large number of fish kept in captivity, research on the welfare of these animals has only recently intensified. One commonly used method for improving fish welfare is...

  3. Pressure Mat Analysis of Walk and Trot Gait Characteristics in 66 Normal Small, Medium, Large, and Giant Breed Dogs

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Maria A. Fahie, Jonathan C. Cortez, Marc Ledesma, Yuhua Su

    Objectives: To document temporospatial variables and gait symmetry measured by the GAITRite® system for normal, healthy dogs at the walk and trot with the leash side recorded. Study Design: Observational, prospective, cohort study. Sample Population: 66 healthy dogs of various common breeds...

  4. Determinants of the Level of Care Provided for Various Types and Sizes of Dogs in New Providence, The Bahamas

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: William J. Fielding

    This paper reports the level of care offered 424 dogs, classified as small dogs, large dogs, pit bulls and potcakes (the colloquial name for the local mongrel) in New Providence, The Bahamas. Levels of care that meet the legal minimum –food water and shelter– as well as care...

  5. Survey of human organizations and slaughter plants regarding experiences with Vietnamese potbellied pigs

    | Contributor(s):: Lord, L. K., Wittum, T. E.

  6. Cannibalism in juvenile blue-swimmer crabs Portunus pelagicus (Linnaeus, 1766): effects of body size, moult stage and refuge availability

    | Contributor(s):: Marshall, S., Warburton, K., Paterson, B., Mann, D.

    Factors influencing the rate of cannibalism in juvenile blue-swimmer crabs Portunus pelagicus were investigated under controlled conditions using time-lapse video recordings. This study was undertaken to improve blue-swimmer crab culture and experimentally addressed (1) prey vulnerability (2)...

  7. Designing better water troughs: dairy cows prefer and drink more from larger troughs

    | Contributor(s):: Machado Filho, L. C. P., Teixeira, D. L., Weary, D. M., Keyserlingk, M. A. G. von, Hotzel, M. J.

    Little previous work has examined the effects of water trough design on dairy cattle. In the current study we tested the effects of water trough height and size on preference and water intake of cows on pasture. In the first experiment, cows (n=14) were individually given access to two...

  8. Non-exclusive spatial preference in the laying hen

    | Contributor(s):: Nicol, C. J.

    When 12 hens were given a choice between four cages differing in size and shape, they spent most time in the cage with the largest floor area, but substantial amounts of time were spent in the remaining three cages. Eight possible explanations for this non-exclusive choice are proposed: variation...

  9. The effects of pen size on the behaviour of farmed red deer stags confined in yards

    | Contributor(s):: Pollard, J. C., Littlejohn, R. P.

    40 red deer stags (2 years old) were confined for 40 min in large (5 m x 4 m) or small (2.5 m x 4 m) pens on 2 days in spring and summer. Wall pacing and vertical/horizontal head movements at the walls were more frequent in small pens than in large pens and were carried out by a greater...

  10. Use of pen space by broiler chickens: effects of age and pen size

    | Contributor(s):: Newberry, R. C., Hall, J. W.

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of age and pen size on the use of pen space by male broiler chickens. The locations of 18 marked chickens in a large pen (407 msuperscript 2 with 3040 birds) and 10 in each of two small pens (203.5 msuperscript 2 with 1520 birds) were...

  11. Harem size and reproductive success of stallions in Misaki feral horses

    | Contributor(s):: Kaseda, Y., Khalil, A. M.

    Over a 16-year period (1979-1994) investigations were carried out on 14 Misaki feral stallions to analyse changes in harem size and reproductive success. Between 4 and 6 years of age most stallions formed harem groups with 4 to 5 mares. The number of mares rapidly increased and was at a maximum...

  12. Preferences of domestic hens for cage size and floor types as measured by operant conditioning

    | Contributor(s):: Lagadic, H., Faure, J. M.

    Five groups of 4 hens were trained to increase the size of their cage by means of key pecking in an operant conditioning apparatus. Cage sizes could be varied between 1600 and 6100 cmsuperscript 2. The cage floor could be either wood shavings or wire mesh. Hens spent approximately 50% of their...

  13. Proximate constraints on clutch size in domestic pigeons

    | Contributor(s):: Holmberg, K., Klint, T.

    Factors limiting clutch size could in principle act at 3 different stages in the breeding cycle (egg production, incubation and rearing of young). The present study examined proximate limiting factors under laboratory conditions in the domestic pigeon. The results implied that the domestic pigeon...

  14. The influence of handling by humans on the behaviour, reproduction and corticosteroids of male and female pigs

    | Contributor(s):: Hemsworth, P. H., Barnett, J. L., Hansen, C.

    The influence of three handling treatments was studied in 15 male and 30 female pigs. Two handling treatments, considered as pleasant and unpleasant, were imposed for 5 min, three times a week from 11 weeks of age. The third handling treatment involved minimal contact with humans from 11 weeks of...

  15. Individual attributes as predictors of social status in small groups of laying hens

    | Contributor(s):: Bradshaw, R. H.

    Physical traits (body weight, feather colour, comb size and comb colour) were investigated as predictors of social status (dominance, aggression and social interactiveness) in 4 groups each of 6 Ross Brown laying fowls. In the 1st group, there was a significant positive correlation between comb...

  16. Influence of size and asymmetry of sexual characters in the rooster and hen on the number of eggs laid

    | Contributor(s):: Forkman, B., Corr, S.

    The effects of asymmetry and size of secondary sexual characters of 127 hens and 32 cocks on egg laying was studied in a relaxed selection line of Brown Leghorn fowls that had a relatively low level of egg production (approximately 0.6-0.8 eggs/day). Each hen spent 24 h/week with the cocks; there...

  17. Operant determination of the cage and feeder size preferences of the laying hen

    | Contributor(s):: Faure, J. M.

    The design of an apparatus which allows hens to work for feeder space or for cage size is described. Using this apparatus, it was shown that groups of 4 hens will only rarely work to obtain more than the 40-cm length of feed trough which is usually provided in Europe for a group of 4 medium...

  18. The development of agonistic behaviour in relation to the size of the farrowing pen

    | Contributor(s):: Duijghuisen, J. A. H.

    The development of agonistic behaviour of piglets in two types of farrowing pen and their later behaviour as sows in groups was investigated. One type of farrowing pen was 3.85 msuperscript 2, the other was 6.85 msuperscript 2. In both types, agonistic interactions were analysed at an age of 2, 3...

  19. The effects of farrowing nest size and width on sow and piglet behaviour and piglet survival

    | Contributor(s):: Cronin, G. M., Dunsmore, B., Leeson, E.

    The 'Werribee farrowing pen' (WFP) was developed as a loose housing alternative to the farrowing crate. The WFP occupies about twice the space of a crate and comprises 2 compartments, a 'nest' and a 'non-nest' area. The effects of 'nest' size (large: L vs. small: S) and width (wide: W vs. narrow:...