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  1. Reading the mind in the eyes in PTSD: Limited Moderation by the presence of a service dog

    Contributor(s):: Woodward, S. H., Jamison, A. L., Khan, C., Gala, S., Bhowmick, C., Villasenor, D., Tamayo, G., Puckett, M., Parker, K. J.

    Persons with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) frequently experience relationship failures in family and occupational domains resulting in loss of social supports. Prior research has implicated impairments in social cognition. The Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) measures a key...

  2. Cooperative Communication with Humans Evolved to Emerge Early in Domestic Dogs

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Hannah Salomons, Kyle C.M. Smith, Megan Callahan-Beckel, Margaret Callahan, Kerinne Levy, Brenda S. Kennedy, Emily E. Bray, Gitanjali E. Gnanadesikan, Daniel J. Horschler, Margaret Gruen, Jingzhi Tan, Philip White, Bridgett M. vonHoldt, Evan L. MacLean, Brian Hare

    Although we know that dogs evolved from wolves, it remains unclear how domestication affected dog cognition. One hypothesis suggests dog domestication altered social maturation by a process of selecting for an attraction to humans.1,  2,  3 Under this account, dogs became more...

  3. Horses form cross-modal representations of adults and children

    | Contributor(s):: Jardat, Plotine, Ringhofer, Monamie, Yamamoto, Shinya, Gouyet, Chloé, Degrande, Rachel, Parias, Céline, Reigner, Fabrice, Calandreau, Ludovic, Lansade, Léa

  4. Red Junglefowl Chicks Seek Contact With Humans During Foraging Task

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Diana Rubene, Hanne Løvlie

    Contact seeking with humans is documented in some domestic animals, mainly dogs, which have advanced communication skills. Domestication as a companion animal is thought to underlie this ability. However, also domesticated horses and goats display similar human-directed behaviors. This suggests...

  5. Not So Different as Cats and Dogs: Companionship during the COVID-19 Pandemic

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Shelly Volsche, Elizabeth Johnson

    COVID- 19 lockdown provided a unique, in situ opportunity to probe caretaker experiences of living with companion animals during a stressful event. We launched an online survey in the United States that included standard demographic questions, questions related to household structures, and 25...

  6. The effect of owner presence and scent on stress resilience in cats

    | Contributor(s):: Behnke, Alexandra C., Vitale, Kristyn R., Udell, Monique A. R.

    The Secure Base Effect (SBE) refers to a human or non-human animal’s ability to use the presence of a bonded caretaker, or other familiar stimulus, as a source of comfort that facilitates stress reduction and exploration in novel or stressful contexts. Recent research has shown that some...

  7. Social dog — emotional dog?

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Stefanie Riemer

    Based on their high sociability and their capabilities in social cognition, we should conclude that dogs experience rich emotions in the social domain. I discuss the importance of dog-human attachment and some of the controversial evidence for so-called secondary emotions, which leaves many...

  8. Are free-ranging Kune Kune pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) able to solve a cooperative task?

    | Contributor(s):: Koglmüller, Melanie, Wondrak, Marianne, Camerlink, Irene, Rault, Jean-Loup, Huber, Ludwig

  9. The neural basis of understanding the expression of the emotions in man and animals

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Robert P. Spunt, Emily Ellsworth, Ralph Adolphs

    Humans cannot help but attribute human emotions to non-human animals. Although such attributions are often regarded as gratuitous anthropomorphisms and held apart from the attributions humans make about each other’s internal states, they may be the product of a general mechanism for...

  10. Reaching Millennials: Implications for Advertisers of Competitive Sporting Events that Use Animals

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Jackie Hill, Mallory Mobly, Billy R. McKim

    The purpose of this mixed method, multi-modal case study was to identify the most acceptable video images of animals to use when advertising competitive sporting events. Data were collected from college students at Arizona State University, California State University-Fresno, Texas A&M...

  11. Goats Follow Human Pointing Gestures in an Object Choice Task

    | Contributor(s):: Nawroth, C., Martin, Z. M., McElligott, A. G.

  12. A Longitudinal Study of Decision Making in the Process of Acquiring a Dog

    | Contributor(s):: Vink, Lonneke M., Dijkstra, Arie, Epstude, Kai

    To prevent potential problems in the relationship between people and their dogs, it is important to engage in a thoughtful decision-making process with regard to acquiring a dog. To map the most important elements in the decision-making process, a social cognitive model was applied using seven...

  13. When do dogs help humans?

    | Contributor(s):: Bräuer, Juliane, Schönefeld, Katja, Call, Josep

    Here we investigate whether domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) engage in instrumental helping towards humans without special training. We hypothesized that dogs would help a human if the human's goal was made as obvious as possible. Therefore we used a set-up in which a human attempted to enter a...

  14. Horses feel emotions when they watch positive and negative horse–human interactions in a video and transpose what they saw to real life

    | Contributor(s):: Trösch, Miléna, Pellon, Sophie, Cuzol, Florent, Parias, Céline, Nowak, Raymond, Calandreau, Ludovic, Lansade, Léa

    AbstractAnimals can indirectly gather meaningful information about other individuals by eavesdropping on their third-party interactions. In particular, eavesdropping can be used to indirectly attribute a negative or positive valence to an individual and to adjust one’s future behavior towards...

  15. Farm Animal Cognition-Linking Behavior, Welfare and Ethics

    | Contributor(s):: Nawroth, C., Langbein, J., Coulon, M., Gabor, V., Oesterwind, S., Benz-Schwarzburg, J., von Borell, E.

  16. Stress, security, and scent: The influence of chemical signals on the social lives of domestic cats and implications for applied settings

    | Contributor(s):: Vitale Shreve, Kristyn R., Udell, Monique A. R.

    Although millions of cats live among humans worldwide the scientific community knows relatively little about cat behavior and cognition. Olfaction is an important perceptual sense for many members of Carnivora, however the role of chemical signals in cat social relationships is not fully...

  17. The exceptions that prove the rule? Spontaneous helping behaviour towards humans in some domestic dogs

    | Contributor(s):: Jaasma, Linda, Kamm, Isabelle, Ploeger, Annemie, Kret, Mariska E.

    Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) are skilled at reading and correctly responding to human communicative gestures to locate hidden food. Whether they, like chimpanzees, will understand requests for help in retrieving a fallen object, is not known. The aim of this study was to examine whether dogs...

  18. Human-directed behaviour in goats is not affected by short-term positive handling

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Jan Langbein, Annika Krause, Christian Nawroth

    In addition to domestication, interactions with humans or task-specific training during ontogeny have been proposed to play a key role in explaining differences in human–animal communication across species. In livestock, even short-term positive interactions with caretakers or other...

  19. Human Demonstration Does Not Facilitate the Performance of Horses (Equus caballus) in a Spatial Problem-Solving Task

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Joan-Bryce Burla, Janina Siegwart, Christian Nawroth

    Horses were confronted with a spatial problem-solving task in which they had to detour an obstacle. Individuals that observed a human demonstrating how to solve the task did not solve the task more often or faster compared with a control group without demonstration. However, horses of both the...

  20. Evaluation of the Dogs, Physical Activity, and Walking (Dogs PAW) Intervention: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    | Contributor(s):: Elizabeth Richards, N. Ogata, C. Cheng

    Background. To facilitate physical activity (PA) adoption and maintenance, promotion of innovative population-level strategies that focus on incorporating moderate intensity, lifestyle PA are needed. Objectives. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the Dogs, Physical...