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  1. The effect of season and stocking density on pig welfare during transport

    Contributor(s):: Hunter, E. J., Weeding, C. M., Guise, H. J., Abbott, T. A., Penny, R. H. C.

  2. The effect of space allowance and sex on blood catecholamines and cortisol, feed consumption and average daily gain in growing lambs

    Contributor(s):: Horton, G. M. J., Malinowski, K., Burgher, C. C., Palatini, D. D.

    The effect of space allowance of 0.37, 0.62 and 0.99 msuperscript 2/lambs and sex on plasma norepinephrine, epinephrine and cortisol concentrations, feed consumption and average daily gain in Dorset lambs 11 weeks old about 21.7 kg (ewe) and 25.7 kg (ram) was examined. Lambs reared in a common...

  3. A note on the time budget and social behaviour of densely housed horses: a case study in Arab breeding mares

    Contributor(s):: Benhajali, H., Richard-Yris, M. A., Leroux, M., Ezzaouia, M., Charfi, F., Hausberger, M.

    We observed a high-density herd (200 mares/ha) of 44 Arab breeding mares, while in a bare paddock in Tunisia. Twenty-minute animal focal samples and scan sampling were used to determine the time budget of the mares during the period from 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. and study their social behaviour. The data...

  4. Analysis of the movement and use of space of animals in confinement: the effect of sampling effort

    Contributor(s):: Estevez, I., Christman, M. C.

    Spatial confinement imposes behavioural restrictions on animals because of limitations in movement and use of space. Group size variations, high animal densities and social factors may exacerbate these effects. A better understanding of space use by captive animals will permit us to design...

  5. Effect of increased floor space on aggressive behaviour in male turkeys ( Meleagris gallopavo )

    Contributor(s):: Buchwalder, T., Huber-Eicher, B.

    Under commercial rearing conditions, domestic turkeys are often aggressive towards "pen-mates", and this may lead to serious injuries or even death. We hypothesized that restricted space, as a consequence of high stocking density, might prevent the attacked bird from retreating from its opponent...

  6. Effects of composition and density of the group on the performance, behaviour and age at puberty in swine

    Contributor(s):: Clark, J. R., Bell, R. W., Tribble, L. F., Lennon, A. M.

    218 crossbred pigs (Duroc-Hampshire-Landrace-Yorkshire) were assigned to a 2 x 3 factorial experiment, the factors being group composition and density. The group-composition factor consisted of pigs not re-aggregated (group 1), re-aggregated below the median body weight (group 2), and...

  7. Effects of social environment on welfare status and sexual behaviour of female pigs. I. Effects of group size

    Contributor(s):: Barnett, J. L., Hemsworth, P. H., Winfield, C. G., Hansen, C.

    The study examined the effects of housing 24 adult female pigs in groups of 2, 4 or 8 with a space allowance of 1.4msuperscript 2 per pig on welfare status, as indicated by plasma free-corticosteroid concentrations and behaviour patterns, and sexual behaviour. Housing gilts in pairs resulted in...

  8. Effects of stocking density on the behaviour and growth of farmed red deer hinds

    Contributor(s):: Blanc, F., Theriez, M.

    The effects of stocking density on the social behaviour, activity patterns and growth rates of yearling red deer hinds reared at pasture, were measured. Twenty individuals were assigned to 2 groups of 10 in a Latin square design. During period 1 (28 days), group 1 was kept at a low stocking...

  9. Fish welfare: current issues in aquaculture. (Special issue: Fish Behaviour and Welfare.)

    Contributor(s):: Ashley, P. J.

    With the continued growth of the aquaculture industry and increasing scientific discussion over the potential for negative events to give rise to suffering, research into the welfare of cultured fish is vital. How we define and measure welfare is cause for debate, particularly in fish. However,...

  10. Group size, density and social dynamics in farm animals. (Special issue: Too many, too few: the effects of group size and density in captive animals.)

    Contributor(s):: Estevez, I., Andersen, I. L., Naevdal, E.

    Farm animals are social species with a strong tendency to form groups. Living in groups has associated costs and benefits. The costs refer mostly to competition for food, or access to other valuable resources that may lower the individuals' fitness, while the benefits includes (but are not...

  11. How animals perceive group size: aggression among hens in partitioned pens

    Contributor(s):: Appleby, M. C., Jenner, T. D.

  12. Non-intrusive tracking of commercial broiler chickens in situ at different stocking densities

    Contributor(s):: Collins, L. M.

    Unlike several other farm animal species, the broiler chicken remains unprotected by species-specific legislation. The densities at which broilers should be kept is a highly contentious issue - some studies have demonstrated increased welfare problems at higher densities, whilst a few others...

  13. Patch selection by cattle: maximization of intake rate in horizontally heterogeneous pastures

    Contributor(s):: Distel, R. A., Laca, E. A., Griggs, T. C., Demment, M. W.

    Three 5-year-old oesophageally fistulated Hereford steers were grazed on ryegrass pastures with patches of short-dense and tall-dense pasture, short-dense and short-sparse pasture, or short-dense and tall-sparse pasture. Bite weight was greatest in tall- and short-dense patches and smallest in...

  14. Resting or hiding? Why broiler chickens stay near walls and how density affects this

    Contributor(s):: Buijs, S., Keeling, L. J., Vangestel, C., Baert, J., Vangeyte, J., Tuyttens, F. A. M.

    Broiler chickens are reported to be close to walls at higher densities. The reason for this is not clear, since evolutionary theories would suggest that birds should attempt to be in the middle of the flock. We studied the spatial distribution (during weeks 4-6) of broiler chickens stocked at...

  15. Special issue: Too many, too few: the effects of group size and density in captive animals. (Special issue: Too many, too few: the effects of group size and density in captive animals.)

    Contributor(s):: Estevez, I.

    For captive animals, group sizes and/or densities are established by humans based on criteria that range from enclosure size to experimental needs or economic reasons. Because group sizes in farm, zoo and laboratory animals are the result of human decisions, it is important to highlight the...

  16. Statistical aspects of the analysis of group size effects in confined animals. (Special issue: Too many, too few: the effects of group size and density in captive animals.)

    Contributor(s):: Christman, M. C., Leone, E. H.

    In research on groups of animals housed in an enclosed environment, confounding is inevitably introduced when the factors under study include stocking density and group size. This confounding occurs because of the requirement that the space be limited and hence pen size and its associated...

  17. The effect of preweaning housing on the play and agonistic behaviour of domestic pigs

    Contributor(s):: Chaloupkova, H., Illmann, G., Bartos, L., Spinka, M.

    The effect of the preweaning housing system on play behaviour before weaning and agonistic behaviour after weaning and during the fattening period was investigated in 32 litters of domestic pigs. Three preweaning housing systems were compared: poor crate (standard farrowing crate without straw),...

  18. An analysis of animal-based versus resource-based comments in official animal welfare inspection reports from organic and conventional farms in Sweden

    Contributor(s):: Keeling, L. J.

    This study analysed the free use of phrases related to animal-based and resource-based measures of animal welfare in Swedish state animal welfare inspection reports on conventional (C) and organic (O) farms. From 244 reports by 35 inspectors, 88 were analysed as matched pairs of C and O farms...

  19. Application of the Welfare QualityReg. protocol at pig slaughterhouses

    Contributor(s):: Dalmau, A., Temple, D., Rodriguez, P., Llonch, P., Velarde, A.

    The objective of the present study was to assess the sensitivity and feasibility of the Welfare QualityReg. (WQ) protocol for finishing pigs in 10 Spanish slaughterhouses. Sensitivity refers to the ability of the WQ assessment system to discriminate between slaughter conditions whilst feasibility...

  20. Behavioural and physiological responses of suckling lambs to transport and lairage

    Contributor(s):: Ibanez, M., Fuente, J. de la, Thos, J., Gonzalez de Chavarri, E.

    The effects on suckling lambs of two stocking densities during transport (high stocking density: eight lambs per m2; low stocking density: four lambs per m2) and two periods of lairage before slaughter (1.5 and 3 h) were studied. The behaviour of lambs transported for short-duration journeys at...