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All Categories (41-60 of 416)

  1. Refinement of welfare through development of a quantitative system for assessment of lifetime experience

    Contributor(s):: Wolfensohn, S., Sharpe, S., Hall, I., Lawrence, S., Kitchen, S., Dennis, M.

    This paper proposes a system that uses intrinsic study data to provide a clear visualisation of the stresses involved during the animal's life history that can be applied to all types of studies, even those not requiring invasive techniques. Thus, it provides an opportunity for researchers to...

  2. Strategic use of straw increases nest building in loose housed farrowing sows

    Contributor(s):: Westin, R., Hultgren, J., Algers, B.

    In spite of domestication, sows are still genetically programmed to perform nesting behaviour close to farrowing. In order to facilitate nest building, a method for a strategic use of large quantities of straw has been developed by Swedish piglet producing farmers. The objectives of the present...

  3. Stress assessment in small ruminants kept on city farms in Southern Germany

    Contributor(s):: Schilling, A. K., Reese, S., Palme, R., Erhard, M., Wohr, A. C.

    Sheep and goats are frequently used in nonhuman animal-assisted activities on city farms. There are few data available on this type of usage of small ruminants. Health evaluations, behavioral observations (feeding, resting, comfort, explorative and social behaviors), behavioral tests (human...

  4. The effect of overgrown claws on behaviour and claw abnormalities of sows in farrowing crates

    Contributor(s):: Diaz, J. A. C., Stienezen, I. M. J., Leonard, F. C., Boyle, L. A.

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of overgrowth of the weight bearing claws on the behaviour of sows in farrowing crates. The study used 24 multiparous lactating sows, 13 with overgrown (OG) rear claws and 11 controls. Sows were video recorded continuously from approximately...

  5. Toward an Anthropology of Action: Andre-Georges Haudricourt And Technical Efficiency

    Contributor(s):: Ferret, Carole

  6. Acoustic analysis of cattle ( Bos taurus) mother-offspring contact calls from a source-filter theory perspective

    Contributor(s):: Torre, M. P. de la, Briefer, E. F., Reader, T., McElligott, A. G.

    Cattle vocalisations have been proposed as potential indicators of animal welfare. However, very few studies have investigated the acoustic structure and information encoded in these vocalisations using advanced analysis techniques. Vocalisations play key roles in a wide range of communication...

  7. Acute stress enhances sensitivity to a highly attractive food reward without affecting judgement bias in laying hens

    Contributor(s):: Hernandez, C. E., Hinch, G., Lea, J., Ferguson, D., Lee, C.

    Affective states can be evaluated by assessing shifts in the animal's expectation of a positive and negative outcome in response to ambiguous cues, also known as judgement bias (JB). The aim of this study was to use a JB methodology, using a go/go type of task where animals are required to make...

  8. An initial investigation into the effects of isolation and enrichment on the welfare of laboratory pigs housed in the PigTurn system, assessed using tear staining, behaviour, physiology and haematology

    Contributor(s):: DeBoer, S. P., Garner, J. P., McCain, R. R., Lay, D. C., Jr., Eicher, S. D., Marchant-Forde, J. N.

    In some parts of the world, the laboratory pig ( Sus scrofa) is often housed in individual, sterile housing which may impose stress. Our objectives were to determine the effects of isolation and enrichment on pigs housed within the PigTurn - a novel penning system with automated blood sampling -...

  9. Comparison of locomotion scoring for dairy cows by experienced and inexperienced raters using live or video observation methods

    Contributor(s):: Schlageter-Tello, A., Bokkers, E. A. M., Koerkamp, P. W. G. G., Hertem, T. van, Viazzi, S., Romanini, C. E. B., Halachmi, I., Bahr, C., Berckmans, D., Lokhorst, K.

    Lameness is considered a major problem in dairy production. Lameness is commonly detected with locomotion scores assigned to cows under farm conditions, but raters are often trained and assessed for reliability and agreement by using video recordings. The aim of this study was to evaluate intra-...

  10. Gut microbiota of humans, dogs and cats: current knowledge and future opportunities and challenges

    Contributor(s):: Deng, P., Swanson, K. S.

    High-throughput DNA sequencing techniques allow for the identification and characterisation of microbes and their genes (microbiome). Using these new techniques, microbial populations in several niches of the human body, including the oral and nasal cavities, skin, urogenital tract and...

  11. Testing three measures of mouse insensibility following induction with isoflurane or carbon dioxide gas for a more humane euthanasia

    Contributor(s):: Moody, C. M., Makowska, I. J., Weary, D. M.

    Laboratory mice are commonly killed via exposure to gradually increasing concentrations of isoflurane and carbon dioxide (CO 2) gas. Once rendered insensible using isoflurane or CO 2, a high concentration of CO 2 is used to decrease time to death. When the switch from isoflurane to a high flow...

  12. The power of automated behavioural homecage technologies in characterizing disease progression in laboratory mice: a review

    Contributor(s):: Richardson, C. A.

    Behavioural changes that occur as animals become sick have been characterized in a number of species and include the less frequent occurrence of 'luxury behaviours' such as playing, grooming and socialization. 'Sickness behaviours' or behavioural changes following exposure to infectious agents,...

  13. The effects of human age, group composition, and behavior on the likelihood of being injured by attacking pumas

    Contributor(s):: Coss, R. G., Fitzhugh, L. E., Schmid-Holmes, S., Kenyon, M. W., Etling, K.

    Documentation from the years 1890 to 2000 of 185 instances of pumas (Puma concolor) attacking humans in the United States and Canada has provided statistical evidence that pumas are less likely to kill or injure humans in certain circumstances. We identified incidents of fatal attacks, severe...

  14. Variations in the timing of reinforcement as a training technique for foals ( Equus caballus )

    Contributor(s):: Warren-Smith, A. K., McLean, A. N., Nicol, H. I., McGreevy, P. D.

    Horses are used worldwide for a range of activities. Their usefulness and welfare in these pursuits are strongly influenced by their trainability, which may in turn be influenced by learning ability. Handling and riding horses can expose both handler and horse to a considerable risk of injury....

  15. Assessment of key parameters for gunshot used on cattle: a pilot study on shot placement and effects of diverse ammunition on isolated cattle heads

    Contributor(s):: Schiffer, K. J., Retz, S. K., Richter, U., Algers, B., Hensel, O.

    There have been many improvements regarding transport conditions, pre-slaughter handling, and captive-bolt stunning of cattle at commercial abattoirs, but many challenges still exist. Animals unaccustomed to human-animal contact, such as free-range beef cattle, may be especially difficult to...

  16. Dogs and their human companions: the effect of familiarity on dog-human interactions

    Contributor(s):: Kerepesi, A., Doka, A., Miklosi, A.

    There are few quantitative examinations of the extent to which dogs discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar persons. In our study we have investigated whether dogs show differential behaviour towards humans of different degrees of familiarity (owner, familiar person, unfamiliar person). Dogs...

  17. How should the welfare of fetal and neurologically immature postnatal animals be protected?

    Contributor(s):: Campbell, M., Mellor, D. J., Sandoe, P.

    Legal protection of the welfare of prenatal animals has not previously been addressed as a discrete subject within the academic literature on animal welfare, ethics and law. This paper aims to rectify this by reviewing the protections (or absence of protections) provided for fetuses by existing...

  18. Participatory methods for the assessment of the ownership status of free-roaming dogs in Bali, Indonesia, for disease control and animal welfare

    Contributor(s):: Morters, M. K., Bharadwaj, S., Whay, H. R., Cleaveland, S., Damriyasa, I. M., Wood, J. L. N.

    The existence of unowned, free-roaming dogs capable of maintaining adequate body condition without direct human oversight has serious implications for disease control and animal welfare, including reducing effective vaccination coverage against rabies through limiting access for vaccination, and...

  19. The effects of an animal-assisted intervention on salivary alpha-amylase, salivary immunoglobulin A, and heart rate during forensic interviews in child sexual abuse cases

    Contributor(s):: Krause-Parello, C. A., Friedmann, E.

    Animal-assisted invention (AAI) in gaining attention as a therapeutic modality; however, the effect of it has not been well studied in the child welfare system. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of AAI on stress indicators (as measured by salivary alpha-amylase (sAA),...

  20. Which personality dimensions do puppy tests measure? A systematic procedure for categorizing behavioral assays

    Contributor(s):: McGarrity, M. E., Sinn, D. L., Gosling, S. D.

    With the recent increase in interest in personality in dogs, behavioral assays of their behavior have proliferated. There has been particularly strong interest in predicting adult behavior from puppy tests. As a result, researchers and practitioners seeking to measure personality in puppies are...