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"Subjects-of-a-Life," Entelechy, and Intrinsic Teleology
| Contributor(s):: Josephine Donovan
This article explores the question of what is a “subject-of-a-life,” Tom Regan’s celebrated term for a living entity to whom, he argued, we humans owe ethical duty. I return to ancient concepts of entelechy and teleological organization, arguing that, stripped of theological...
Transgenic Animals: Their Benefits to Human Welfare
| Contributor(s):: Endang Tri Margawati
Nowadays, breakthroughs in molecular biology are happening at an unprecedented rate. One of them is the ability to engineer transgenic animals, i.e., animals that carry genes from other species. The technology has already produced transgenic animals such as mice, rats, rabbits, pigs, sheep, and...
Genetically Engineering Human-Animal Chimeras and Lives Worth Living
| Contributor(s):: Cooley, D. R.
Freedom of cropping and the good life: political philosophy and the conflict between the organic movement and the biotech industry over cross-contamination
| Contributor(s):: Scott, D.
This paper begins by describing recent controversies over cross-contamination of crops in the United States and European Union. The EU and US are both applying the principle of freedom of cropping to resolve these conflicts, which is based on an individualistic philosophy. However, despite the EU...
Selected papers from Mistra Workshop on Ethical Issues in New Biotechnology in Agriculture, Uppsala, Sweden, 11 September 2013
| Contributor(s):: Sandin, P., Moula, P.
This selection of three papers addresses ethical issues concerning agricultural biotechnology. The first paper argues that GM food is not necessarily unnatural in a sense that would offer a good reason for favoring food that is not GM. The second paper examines the public debate about GMO...
Ethics of dissent: a plea for restraint in the scientific debate about the safety of GM crops
| Contributor(s):: Mampuys, R., Brom, F. W. A.
Results of studies that cast doubt on the safety of genetically modified (GM) crops have been published since the first GM crop approval for commercial release. These 'alarming studies' challenge the dominant view about the adequacy of current risk assessment practice for genetically modified...
Pragmatist philosophical reflections on GMOs
| Contributor(s):: Heldke, L.
This essay examines the public debate about the agricultural biotechnologies known as genetically modified organisms, as that debate is being carried out in its most dichotomizing forms in the United States. It attempts to reveal the power of sharply dichotomous thinking, as well as its limits....
Retracting inconclusive research: lessons from the Seralini GM maize feeding study
| Contributor(s):: Resnik, D. B.
In September 2012, Gilles-Eric Seralini and seven coauthors published an article in Food and Chemical Toxicology claiming that rats fed Roundup-resistant genetically modified maize alone, genetically modified maize with Roundup, or Roundup for 2 years had a higher percentage of tumors and kidney...
Living with transgenic animals
| Contributor(s):: Clark, J. L.
Ethical issues and potential stakeholder priorities associated with the application of genomic technologies applied to animal production systems
| Contributor(s):: Coles, D., Frewer, L. J., Goddard, E.
This study considered the range of ethical issues and potential stakeholder priorities associated with the application of genomic technologies applied to animal production systems, in particular those which utilised genomic technologies in accelerated breeding rather than the application of...
GM crops, the hubris argument and the nature of agriculture
| Contributor(s):: Moula, P.
In this paper, I investigate the moral status of agricultural biotechnology and, more specifically, genetically modified (GM) crops by employing the hubris argument. The old notion of hubris, given to us by the ancient Greeks, provides a narrative from which we can understand ourselves and...
Looking for moral responsibility in ownership: a way to deal with Hazards of GMOs
| Contributor(s):: Robaey, Z.
Until now, the debates around genetically modified seeds in agriculture have converged towards two main issues. The first is about hazards that this new technology brings about, and the second is about the ownership of seeds and the distribution of their economic benefits. In this paper, I...
Risk assessment of genetically modified food and neoliberalism: an argument for democratizing the regulatory review protocol of the Food and Drug Administration
| Contributor(s):: Meghani, Z.
The primary responsibility of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is to protect public health by ensuring the safety of the food supply. To that end, it sometimes conducts risk assessments of novel food products, such as genetically modified (GM) food. The FDA describes its regulatory...
The leading Canadian NGOs' discourse on fish farming: from ecocentric intuitions to biocentric solutions
| Contributor(s):: Pigeon, L. E., Letourneau, L.
The development of the aquaculture industry in Canada has triggered a conflict of a scope never seen before. As stated in Young and Matthews' The Aquaculture Controversy, this debate has "mushroomed over the past several decades to become one of the most bitter and stubborn face-offs over...
Genetically modified laboratory animals - what welfare problems do they face?
| Contributor(s):: Buehr, M., Hjorth, P. J., Hansen, A. K., Sandoe, P.
In this article, we respond to public concern expressed about the welfare of genetically modified (GM) non-human animals. As a contribution to the debate on this subject, we attempt in this article to determine in what situations the practice of genetic modification in rodents may generate...
Phenotype characterization and welfare assessment of transgenic rodents (mice)
| Contributor(s):: Mertens, C., Rulicke, T.
Methods of transgenesis in vertebrate animals in the laboratory involve the stable addition or selective substitution of defined genes into the germline. Although there is a continuous and remarkable development in transgenic technology-the quality of transgenes, gene-targeting vectors, and...
Prolonged pain research in mice: trends in reference to the 3Rs
| Contributor(s):: Balcombe, J., Ferdowsian, H., Briese, L.
This literature review documents trends in the use of mice in prolonged pain research, defined herein as research that subjects mice to a source of pain for at least 14 days. The total amount of prolonged pain research on mice has increased dramatically in the past decade for the 3 pain...
Critical care and survival of fragile animals: the case of Prrxl1 knockout mice
| Contributor(s):: Monteiro, C., Dourado, M., Matos, M., Duarte, I., Lamas, S., Galhardo, V., Lima, D.
The generation of genetically modified animal models in which a given gene is permanently deleted or overexpressed, sometimes results in fragile phenotypes characterized by high morbidity and premature death. This undesired outcome creates important welfare difficulties and poses a huge...
Legal and ethical apprehensions regarding relational object. The case of genetically modified fish
| Contributor(s):: Coutellec, L., Doussan, I.
A study of how experts and non-experts make decisions on releasing genetically modified plants
| Contributor(s):: Brana, G. M. R., Miranda-Vilela, A. L., Grisolia, C. K.