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  1. A Case of Letting the Cat out of The Bag—Why Trap-Neuter-Return Is Not an Ethical Solution for Stray Cat (Felis catus) Management

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Heather M. Crawford, Michael C. Calver, Patricia A. Fleming

    Trap-Neuter-Return (TNR) programs, in which stray cats are captured, neutered and returned to the environment are advocated as a humane, ethical alternative to euthanasia. We review the TNR literature in light of current debate over whether or not there should be further TNR trials in...

  2. Integrated Return-To-Field and Targeted Trap-Neuter-Vaccinate-Return Programs Result in Reductions of Feline Intake and Euthanasia at Six Municipal Animal Shelters

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Daniel D. Spehar, Peter J. Wolf

    For decades, animal shelters in the U.S. have sought to reduce the number of cats that are impounded and euthanized. Since the 1990s, low-cost sterilization campaigns aimed at owned cats have achieved varying levels of success in meeting these objectives. Over a similar time period, the use of...

  3. Cat Colony Caretakers' Perceptions of Support and Opposition to TNR

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Jacquie Rand, Andrea Hayward, Kuan Tan

    Trap, neuter and return (TNR) is a non-lethal approach to urban cat management used effectively internationally to decrease urban cat numbers, but deemed illegal in Australia. We investigated perceived support and opposition to TNR experienced by respondents involved in TNR activities, as...

  4. Free-Roaming Cat (Felis Catus) Management and Welfare Policies in Two University Campuses in Beirut, Lebanon: Strengths, Weaknesses, and Opportunities

    | Contributor(s):: Davey, Gareth, Zhao, Xiang

    Little information has been reported about the welfare and management of free-roaming animals in Middle Eastern countries. Here we describe a case study of free-roaming cat (Felis catus) management policies in two universities in Beirut, Lebanon whereby cats are immensely valued for their...

  5. Public Opinions on Strategies for Managing Stray Cats and Predictors of Opposition to Trap-Neuter and Return in Brisbane, Australia

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Jacquie Rand, Gina Fisher, Kate Lamb, Andrea Hayward

    A survey of Brisbane residents was undertaken to investigate community attitudes toward urban stray cats and their management. Surveys were distributed to 84 medical and dental practices across Brisbane City, and were completed by 305 patients and staff. Practices were targeted to achieve a...

  6. Decrease in Population and Increase in Welfare of Community Cats in a Twenty-Three Year Trap-Neuter-Return Program in Key Largo, FL: The ORCAT Program

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Rachael E. Kreisler, Heather N. Cornell, Julie K. Levy

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a long-term (23-year) trapneuter-return program on the population size of community cats in the Ocean Reef Community and to describe the demographic composition and outcome of enrolled cats. A retrospective study was performed using both...

  7. The Road to TNR: Examining Trap-Neuter-Return Through the Lens of Our Evolving Ethics

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Peter Joseph Wolf, Joan E. Schaffner

    In the 2008 article “A Review of Feral Cat Control,” Robertson explored the trend developing in the management of so-called “feral” cats away from lethal methods toward the non-lethal method of trap-neuter-return (TNR). The review explored various issues raised by the...

  8. Integrating Trap-Neuter-Return Campaigns Into a Social Framework: Developing Long-Term Positive Behavior Change Toward Unowned Cats in Urban Areas

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Jennifer L. McDonald, Mark J. Farnworth, Jane Clements

    Cat management is often discussed in terms of population reduction, with trap-neuter-return (TNR) campaigns commonly organized to manage unowned urban cat populations. However, long-term effectiveness is only possible if positive neutering practices are continued by local residents. Here we...

  9. Activity patterns and interspecific interactions of free-roaming, domestic cats in managed Trap-Neuter-Return colonies

    | Contributor(s):: Hernandez, Sonia M., Loyd, Kerrie Anne T., Newton, Alexandra N., Gallagher, Mark 'Chip, Carswell, Ben L., Abernathy, Kyler J.

    There is very little information on the activity and experiences of stray cats living in managed Trap-Neuter-Return colonies. We explored this issue on a barrier island in the southeastern USA. We analyzed activity patterns relative to both individual cat and colony variables. We used 645 h of...

  10. Harming (Respectfully) Some to Benefit Others: Animal Rights and the Moral Imperative of Trap-Neuter-Release Programs

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Cheryl E. Abbate

    Because spaying/neutering animals involves the harming of some animals in order to prevent harm to others, some ethicists, like David Boonin, argue that the philosophy of animal rights is committed to the view that spaying/neutering animals violates the respect principle and that Trap Neuter...

  11. Assessment of a Targeted Trap-Neuter-Return Pilot Study in Auckland, New Zealand

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Sarah Zito, Glenn Aguilar, Shalsee Vigeant, Arnja Dale

    There is a need for effective and humane management tools to manage urban stray cats and minimise negative impacts associated with stray cats. One such tool is targeted trap-neuter-return (TTNR), but no concerted implementation of this technique or formal assessments have been reported. To...

  12. Application of a Protocol Based on Trap-Neuter-Return (TNR) to Manage Unowned Urban Cats on an Australian University Campus

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Helen Swarbrick, Jacquie Rand

    In Australia, management of the unowned urban cat population is a continuing challenge. This is because the numbers of cats culled in trap-and-kill programs are inadequate to balance the breeding rate of the remaining cats, and also because of immigration of sexually active cats from...

  13. The Impact of an Integrated Program of Return-to-Field and Targeted Trap-Neuter-Return on Feline Intake and Euthanasia at a Municipal Animal Shelter

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Daniel D Spehar, Peter J Wolf

    Available evidence indicates that overall levels of feline intake and euthanasia at U.S. shelters have significantly declined in recent decades. Nevertheless, millions of cats, many of them free-roaming, continue to be admitted to shelters each year. In some locations, as many as 70% of cats,...

  14. A Case Study in Citizen Science: The Effectiveness of a Trap-Neuter-Return Program in a Chicago Neighborhood

    | Contributor(s):: Daniel D. Spehar, Peter J. Wolf

    The use of trap-neuter-return (TNR) as a method of managing free-roaming cat populations has increased in the United States in recent decades. Historically, TNR has been conducted most often at a grassroots level, which has led to inconsistent data collection and assessment practices....

  15. An Examination of an Iconic Trap-Neuter-Return Program: The Newburyport, Massachusetts Case Study

    | Contributor(s):: David D. Spehar, Peter J. Wolf

    Local communities in the United States are commonly responsible for selecting the most appropriate method of managing free-roaming cats. Lethal management has been widely utilized for generations, but the use of trap–neuter–return (TNR) has grown in recent decades. Despite expanded...

  16. Feeders of Free-Roaming Cats: Personal Characteristics, Feeding Practices, and Data on Cat Health and Welfare in an Urban Setting of Israel

    | Contributor(s):: Idit Gunther, Tal Raz, Yehonatan Even Zor, Yuval Bachowski, Eyal Klement

    Cat feeders serve as an important source of available food for free-roaming cats (FRCs) and can play a central role in providing data on FRC distribution, welfare, and health. Data on cat feeder personalities as well as a better understanding of their feeding practices offer relevance for...

  17. Identifying people's most preferred management technique for feral cats in Hawaii

    | Contributor(s):: Lohr, Cheryl A., Lepczyk, Christopher A., Cox, Linda J.