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  1. Detecting and neutralizing odor sources in dog and cat elimination problems

    Contributor(s):: Melese, P.

  2. The maintenance behaviour and cleanliness of pigs in two-tier weaner decks

    Contributor(s):: Lewis, N. J., Christison, G. I.

    Tiered weaner decks for pigs appear to have a major disadvantage because the faeces and urine from the pigs in the top pens drop through to the pigs in the lower pens. This may affect the well-being of these pigs and may cause the development of poor dunging habits. To determine the general...

  3. A brief report on effects of transfer from outdoor grazing to indoor tethering and back on urinary cortisol and behaviour in dairy cattle

    Contributor(s):: Higashiyama, Y., Nashiki, M., Narita, H., Kawasaki, M.

    The present study was performed to investigate the effects of transferring cattle (n=7) from pasture to indoor confinement and their return to pasture on their physiological and behavioural responses. On the day after the cows were moved to indoor tethering, urinary cortisol increased...

  4. Behavioural and physiological measures of welfare of pregnant mares fitted with a novel urine collection device

    Contributor(s):: Jongman, E. C., Bidstrup, I., Hemsworth, P. H.

    An alternative collection procedure for pregnant mare urine (PMU) has been developed in Australia, which allows mares to be loose housed either in indoor stables or outdoors in paddocks, rather than in tether stalls as is common practice in Canada and North Dakota. The present study examined the...

  5. Discrimination between conspecific odour samples in the horse ( Equus caballus )

    Contributor(s):: Hothersall, B., Harris, P., Sortoft, L., Nicol, C. J.

    Behavioural observations suggest that smell is important in social discriminations between horses but balanced studies of this capacity are lacking. We used a habituation-discrimination procedure to investigate the ability of horses to distinguish between pairs of odour samples from different...

  6. The importance of exposure to other male scents in determining competitive behaviour among inbred male mice

    Contributor(s):: Lacey, J. C., Beynon, R. J., Hurst, J. L.

    Inbred mouse strains are homozygous at almost all loci, with individuals of the same strain expressing the same genetically determined scents that would normally provide individuals with their own unique scent. As laboratory mice are normally housed with others of the same strain in a simple and...

  7. Characterising the emotional reactivity of cows to understand and predict their stress reactions to the slaughter procedure

    Contributor(s):: Bourguet, C., Deiss, V., Gobert, M., Durand, D., Boissy, A., Terlouw, E. M. C.

    The present study on 32 Normand cows evaluated whether it is possible to identify, during rearing, individuals likely to be relatively reactive to the slaughter procedure. It evaluated further which factors may contribute to stress during the pre-slaughter period. Behavioural and physiological...

  8. Discrimination between the odours of fresh oestrous and non-oestrous ewe urine by rams

    Contributor(s):: Blissitt, M. J., Bland, K. P., Cottrell, D. F.

    Four sexually experienced adult Suffolk and Cheviot rams were trained by operant conditioning to discriminate between oestrous and non-oestrous ewe urine odours. Fresh oestrous and non-oestrous urine was collected from pairs of ewes during standing oestrus and days 6-11 of the cycle resp., within...

  9. Olfactory and vomeronasal chemoreception and the discrimination of oestrous and non-oestrous ewe urine odours by the ram

    Contributor(s):: Blissitt, M. J., Bland, K. P., Cottrell, D. F.

    Evidence was obtained that odour access to the vomeronasal organs is not necessary for adult rams to discriminate between oestrous and non-oestrous ewe urine odours. The chemoreceptors mediating this discrimination are located intranasally, probably in the main olfactory epithelium. Zinc sulphate...

  10. Rapid shaping of behaviour associated with high urinary cortisol in domestic dogs

    Contributor(s):: Blackwell, E. J., Bodnariu, A., Tyson, J., Bradshaw, J. W. S., Casey, R. A.

    The occurrence of stress has widely been associated with impairments in learning abilities in animals, although the influence of stress appears to differ with the complexity of tasks. Previous research has suggested that some domestic dogs exhibit both physiological (elevated cortisol) and...

  11. A review of mulesing and other methods to control flystrike (cutaneous myiasis) in sheep

    Contributor(s):: Phillips, C. J. C.

    Flystrike (cutaneous myiasis) in sheep has the potential to have a major impact on the welfare of significant numbers of sheep worldwide, but particularly in Australia. The main control method used in Australia, the mulesing operation to remove folds of skin from the hindquarters of the sheep, is...

  12. Alarm pheromones in urine modify the behaviour of weaner pigs

    Contributor(s):: Amory, J. R., Pearce, G. P.

    Pigs undergoing an alarming experience may produce olfactory stimuli (pheromones) in their urine, which may have consequences for the welfare of other pigs exposed to these stimuli. 12 young adult female pigs (gilts) were restrained for 30 min in feeding stalls (a potentially alarming experience)...

  13. Changes in ear-pinna temperature as a useful measure of stress in sheep ( ovis aries )

    Contributor(s):: Lowe, T. E., Cook, C. J., Ingram, J. R., Harris, P. J.

    Activation of the sympathetic nervous system, with associated increases in heart rate and the redistribution of blood in preparation for 'fight or flight', is an integral part of the 'defence reaction'. In sheep, the defence reaction involves vasoconstriction in the ear-pinna. If decreases in...

  14. Corticosterone differences rather than social housing predict performance of T-maze alternation in male CD-1 mice

    Contributor(s):: Fitchett, A. E., Barnard, C. J., Cassaday, H. J.

    This study examined the effects of social housing manipulations on bodyweight, corticosterone levels, and performance of T-maze alternation in male CD-1 mice. Males that adopted a dominant social rank were heavier than those that adopted a subordinate social rank. Dominant males also had lower...

  15. Disruptive effects of standard husbandry practice on laboratory rat social discrimination

    Contributor(s):: Burman, O. H. P., Mendl, M.

    Elements of husbandry procedures, such as handling, may disrupt rodent social behaviour. Such effects may be contingent upon the familiarity between individuals and upon the quality and quantity of the disruption. We investigated this issue using laboratory rats. We placed 36 rats into groups of...

  16. Enriching the metabolic cage: effects on rat physiology and behaviour

    Contributor(s):: Sorensen, D. B., Mortensen, K., Bertelsen, T., Vognbjerg, K.

    Metabolic cages are used for housing rats and mice for up to five days for collection of urine and/or faeces. The small, barren area of the metabolic cage compromises animal welfare as the animals lack a solid floor, shelter, nest material and social contact. We constructed and tested a...

  17. Influence of indoor-cat group size and dominance rank on urinary cortisol levels

    Contributor(s):: Lichtsteiner, M., Turner, D. C.

    Domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) are often housed indoors both singly and in groups. However, there is a lack of studies dealing with cat-cat relationships, group composition and effects of environmental parameters on the well-being of privately-owned cats. One way to index the effects of...

  18. Introduction of foreign female Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus ) into an existing group: behavioural reactions and changes in cortisol levels

    Contributor(s):: Schmid, J., Heistermann, M., Ganslosser, U., Hodges, J. K.

    The present study examined the extent to which the introduction of three female Asian elephants (aged 3, 11 and 27 years) into a group of 5 (1 male, 4 female) elephants at Munster zoo, Germany, affects the behaviour and urinary cortisol levels of the animals involved. At Munster, only the females...

  19. Modulation of aggression in male mice: influence of cage cleaning regime and scent marks

    Contributor(s):: Loo, P. L. P. van, Kruitwagen, C. L. J. J., Zutphen, L. F. M. van, Koolhaas, J. M., Baumans, V.

    Group housing of male laboratory mice often leads to welfare problems due to aggressive behaviour. From a welfare perspective, individual housing is not a preferred solution to these problems - and so other ways of reducing aggression between male mice were sought. Aggression peaks after...

  20. Murid stress odours: a review and a 'low tech' method of collection

    Contributor(s):: Mason, G. J., Dallaire, J., Ware, N.

    Stress cues can affect the welfare of animals in close proximity and are possibly useful non-invasive indicators of the emitters' welfare. To facilitate their study in murids, we tested whether rats' stress odours could be collected and stored using an enfleurage-type technique. 'Donor' rats were...