Analysis of the alternative agriculture's seeds market sector: history and development
Contributor(s):: Barbieri, P., Bocchi, S.
Alternative agricultural systems, like organic and local agriculture, are becoming increasingly important in Europe to the detriment of conventional methods. As a matter of fact, sustainable agriculture, which started as a niche sector, has been able to conquer a significant share of the European...
A study of three IACUCs and their views of scientific merit and alternatives
Contributor(s):: Graham, K.
Two ethical issues facing Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUCs) today are assessing scientific merit and the use of alternatives in research proposals. This study evaluated 3 IACUCs using a 19-question survey, with a 77.8% response rate. Although 76% of members answered that...
Ethics, narrative, and agriculture: transforming agricultural practice through ecological imagination
Contributor(s):: Sanford, A. W.
The environmental degradation caused by industrial agriculture, as well as the resulting social and health consequences, creates an urgency to rethink food production by expanding the moral imagination to include agricultural practices. Agricultural practices presume human use of the earth and...
The reshaping of conventional farming: a North American perspective. (Special Issue: Two systems - one world.)
Contributor(s):: Thompson, P. B.
Debates over the future of agriculture in North America establish a dialectical opposition between conventional, industrial agriculture and alternative, sustainable agriculture. This opposition has roots that extend back to the 18th century in the USA, but the debate has taken a number of...
Ethics, evidence, and medicine
Contributor(s):: Rollin, B. E.
The three Rs at the beginning of the 21st Century. Proceedings of the fourth world congress on alternatives and animal use in the life sciences, New Orleans, LA, USA, 11-15 August 2002
Contributor(s):: Balls, M., Firmani, D., Rowan, A. N.
The three Rs at the beginning of the 21st century. Proceedings of the fourth world congress on alternatives and animal use in the life sciences, New Orleans, LA, USA, 11-15 August 2002
Death is a welfare issue
Contributor(s):: Yeates, J. W.
It is commonly asserted that "death is not a welfare issue" and this has been reflected in welfare legislation and policy in many countries. However, this creates a conflict for many who consider animal welfare to be an appropriate basis for decision-making in animal ethics but also consider that...
Future tasks for agriculture
Contributor(s):: Rist, M.
The paper argues that efforts should be made to transform current trends in civilization into cultural development and that with respect to agriculture, the present technical age with open linear production methods should be transformed into a future biological one with closed cycles. A...
Meat and morality: alternatives to factory farming
Contributor(s):: Pluhar, E. B.
Scientists have shown that the practice of factory farming is an increasingly urgent danger to human health, the environment, and nonhuman animal welfare. For all these reasons, moral agents must consider alternatives. Vegetarian food production, humane food animal farming, and in-vitro meat...
Technology and ethics in agriculture
Contributor(s):: Daniel, P.
Using technological changes in wheat harvest, the formation and transformation of the cotton culture, the impact of the Green Revolution in Malaya, and genetic engineering as examples, this article explores the positive and negative impacts of science and technology applied to agriculture. The...
The ethical limits of domestication: a critique of Henry Heffner's arguments
Contributor(s):: Allen, C., Bekoff, M., Gruen, L.
Henry E. Heffner argues that "animals bred for research are properly viewed as animals who have successfully invaded the laboratory niche, relying heavily on kin selection to perpetuate their genes." (1999, p. 134). This view of human-animal interactions is the cornerstone of his...
Ethics and welfare of animals used in education: an overview
Contributor(s):: King, L. A.
Ethical, regulatory and scientific issues arise from the use of animals in education, from secondary level schooling through to veterinary and medical training. A utilitarian cost-benefit analysis can be used to assess whether animals should be used in scientific education. The 'benefit' aspect...
The application of Russell and Burch's Three Rs in commercial livestock experimentation
Contributor(s):: Colditz, I. G.
The inclusion of Russell and Burch's Three Rs (replacement, reduction and refinement) in guidelines, codes of practice and law reflects their current position as the guiding principles of ethical assessment of research involving animals. This article explores some activities within the...
The educative role of an animal care committee in Canada: a case study
Contributor(s):: Bowd, A. D.
The ethics of the Three Rs principle: a reconsideration
Contributor(s):: Vorstenbosch, J. M. G.
In the past decades the Three Rs concept, famously launched by Russell and Burch in their 1959 book The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique, has gained a prominent place in the landscape of societal and ethical concern about animal use. Important scientific and institutional initiatives...
The interplay between replacement, reduction and refinement: considerations where the Three Rs interact
Contributor(s):: Boo, M. J. de, Rennie, A. E., Buchanan-Smith, H. M., Hendriksen, C. F. M.
Russell and Burch's Three Rs principle of replacement, reduction and refinement offers a useful concept for the scientific and ethical evaluation of the use of animals in scientific procedures. Replacement, reduction and refinement are often considered separately, but when applied, one of the...
The Three Rs in the pharmaceutical industry: perspectives of scientists and regulators
Contributor(s):: Fenwick, N. P., Fraser, D.
Six drug regulatory reviewers and 11 pharmaceutical industry scientists were interviewed to explore their perspectives on the obstacles and opportunities for greater implementation of the Three Rs (replacement, reduction, refinement) in drug research and development. Participants generally...
The Three Rs: past, present and future
Contributor(s):: Russell, W. M. S.
Ethics: views from IACUC members
Contributor(s):: Houde, L., Dumas, C., Leroux, T.
Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) members were interviewed on various ethical matters, including ethics, animal ethics, science and ethics, and the use of animals in research, in order to explore their implicit ethical framework. The results revealed that IACUC members entertain...