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A case study employing operant conditioning to reduce stress of capture for red-bellied tamarins ( Saguinus labiatus )
Contributor(s):: Owen, Y., Amory, J. R.
Traditional techniques used to capture New World monkeys, such as net capture, can induce high levels of acute stress detrimental to welfare. Alternatively, training nonhuman animals via operant conditioning to voluntarily participate in husbandry and/or veterinary practices is accepted as a...
Animal welfare and livestock production in a postindustrial milieu. (Special issue: food animal husbandry and the new millennium)
Contributor(s):: Thompson, P. B.
Structural transformation, food safety, and environmental risks pose challenges to livestock producers. Adjustments to livestock production systems to improve animal welfare will be made in an economic and political milieu characterized by these challenges. However, competing assumptions about...
Animal welfare issues in the poultry industry: is there a lesson to be learned? (Special issue: food animal husbandry and the new millennium)
Contributor(s):: Duncan, I. J. H.
Many of the conditions in which poultry live and the procedures to which they are subjected compromise their welfare. This article describes these welfare problems in the hope that they may serve as warnings to the rest of animal agriculture, which then might take steps to avoid the same...
Application of welfare assessment to commercial livestock production
Contributor(s):: Main, D. C. J.
Farm assurance schemes are an inevitable and essential part of the UK livestock industries as they provide valuable assurances to the market over food safety, nonhuman animal welfare, and environmental concerns. However, there is potential for welfare assessment within such schemes to extend...
Artificial weaning of calves: benefits and costs
Contributor(s):: Reinhardt, V.
Evidence indicates that allowing beef calves to stay in the maternal herd beyond the age of natural weaning promotes animal welfare and may enhance the cows' natural reproductive potential.
Assessing the welfare of dairy cattle. (Special issue: food animal husbandry and the new millennium)
Contributor(s):: Rushen, J.
This article suggests that health problems represent some of the main threats to the welfare of dairy cattle. Although disagreement often arises about what constitutes the main welfare problems, there is broad agreement that welfare is reduced by health problems. In recent decades, a marked...
Can ambient sound reduce distress in piglets during weaning and restraint?
Contributor(s):: Cloutier, S., Weary, D. M., Fraser, D.
This study monitored the vocal responses of piglets, as indicators of well-being, to evaluate the effect of various sounds played during 2 simulations of stressful farm procedures: (a) the 5 min the animals were held as if for castration and (b) the first 20 h after weaning. The sound treatments...
China's bear farming and long-term solutions
Contributor(s):: Li, P. J.
Commentary on China's bear farming to obtain bear bile for traditional Chinese medicine and possible long-term solutions.
Effects of training on stress-related behavior of the common marmoset ( Callithrix jacchus ) in relation to coping with routine husbandry procedures. (Training Nonhuman Primates Using Positive Reinforcement Techniques)
Contributor(s):: Bassett, L., Buchanan-Smith, H. M., McKinley, J., Smith, T. E.
Using positive reinforcement, 12 common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) were trained to provide urine samples on request. The marmosets were exposed to mildly stressful, routine husbandry procedures (i.e., capture and weighing). The non-human animals spent less time inactive poststressor as...
Exploring human interaction and diet effects on the behavior of dogs in a public animal shelter
Contributor(s):: Hennessy, M. B., Voith, V. L., Young, T. L., Hawke, J. L., Centrone, J., McDowell, A. L., Linden, F., Davenport, G. M.
This study examined the effects of 2 manipulations - a brief, regular period of human contact and diet - on the behaviour of dogs confined in a public animal shelter. A behavioural battery designed to assess reactions to novel situations, and a test of responsiveness to an unfamiliar human were...
Farm animal production: changing agriculture in a changing culture. (Special issue: food animal husbandry and the new millennium)
Contributor(s):: Fraser, D.
Western attitudes toward animals have undergone a gradual evolution during recent centuries, driven by the scientific recognition that humans and many other species share a common anatomical template, a common phylogenetic ancestry, and certain similarities in their social and emotional lives....
Handling, electric goad, and head restraint: effects on calves' behavior
Contributor(s):: Goonewardene, L. A., Price, M. A., Stookey, J. M., Day, P. A., Minchau, G.
96 weaned calves (48 bulls and 48 heifers) were allocated in a 2 x 2 x 2 arrangement to 3 treatments each with 2 levels: calves handled every 10 days or 20 days; an electric goad used or not used; and head gate restrained or not restrained. Behaviour responses were measured by 5 incremental...
Hoop housing for feeder pigs offers a welfare-friendly environment compared to a nonbedded confinement system
Contributor(s):: Lay, D. C., Jr., Haussmann, M. F., Daniels, M. J.
A nonbedded confinement system (NBCS) was compared with hoop structures (Hoop) for housing of feeder pigs. The Hoop is an inexpensive alternative to the total confinement system. Open-ended Quonsets shaped like a half cylinder lying on its flat side, the Hoop use bedding to keep the pigs dry and...
Influence of stocking density on tonic immobility, lameness, and tibial dyschondroplasia in broilers
Contributor(s):: Sanotra, G. S., Lawson, L. G., Vestergaard, K. S.
This study assessed the effect of stocking density on the development of fear reaction (tonic immobility), lameness (gait), and tibial dyschondroplasia in broiler chicks of mixed sex. During 3 experiments, the study used 49 500 broiler chicks (Ross 208). Of these, 432 focal chicks were randomly...
Measuring motivation in swine: the food-metric scale
Contributor(s):: Patterson-Kane, E. G., Kirkden, R. D., Pajor, E. A.
Understanding how nonhuman animals such as swine respond to their environment and understanding how to provide them with a good quality of life involves using a range of experimental approaches. More and more, ethological researchers are turning to operant methods to answer some of these...
Minimal number of conspecifics needed to minimize the stress response of isolated mature ewes
Contributor(s):: Carbajal, S., Orihuela, A.
The objective of this study was to determine the minimum number of conspecifics that sheep require to minimize the stress associated with isolation from the flock. The study used twelve 3-year-old Suffolk ewes. Every test day, the study randomly selected 1, 2 or 3 ewes to be visually separated...
Production costs and animal welfare for four stylized hog production systems
Contributor(s):: Seibert, L., Norwood, F. B.
Nonhuman animal welfare is arguably the most contentious issue facing the hog industry. Animal advocacy groups influence the regulation of hog farms and induce some consumers to demand more humane pork products. Hog producers are understandably reluctant to improve animal well being unless the...
Scientists' assessment of the impact of housing and management on animal welfare
A total of 22 scientists contributed to a consensus-oriented conceptual framework for assessment of farm animal welfare, addressing priority issues in cattle, pigs, and chickens. They used the Delphi method, in which participants contributed anonymously through e-mail. The framework puts welfare...
Special issue: food animal husbandry and the new millennium. (Special issue: food animal husbandry and the new millennium)
Contributor(s):: Serpell, J. A., Parsons, T. D.
The special issue contains four articles which evaluate animal welfare in livestock production; also, they give a critical appraisal of the food animal industry during this present time. The first two articles deal mainly on the changing attitudes and public perceptions of animal agriculture in...
Systematic investigation of the stability of food preferences in captive orangutans: implications for positive reinforcement training
Contributor(s):: Clay, A. W., Bloomsmith, M. A., Marr, M. J., Maple, T. L.
Using preference-assessment tests with humans in conjunction with behavioral modification sessions has been a regular component of almost all operant conditioning programs with mentally challenged humans. This has been very effective in improving the efficiency of behavioral training in these...