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  1. Zoo Animal Welfare: The Human Dimension

    Contributor(s):: Cole, Justine, Fraser, David

    Standards and policies intended to safeguard nonhuman animal welfare, whether in zoos, farms, or laboratories, have tended to emphasize features of the physical environment. However, research has now made it clear that very different welfare outcomes are commonly seen in facilities using similar...

  2. Which Wild Aardvarks Are Most Suitable for Outdoor Enclosures in Zoological Gardens in the European Union?

    Contributor(s):: Patoka, Jiří, Vejtrubová, Markéta, Vrabec, Vladimír, Masopustová, Renata

    The aardvark is popular in many zoological gardens in the European Union. These creatures are nocturnal, and aardvarks in the wild are known to walk distances of 4 km to 7 km per night. Despite what is known about their biology, most aardvarks are kept in zoological gardens in indoor enclosures...

  3. What Is the Future for Zoos and Aquariums?

    Contributor(s):: Kagan, Ron, Allard, Stephanie, Carter, Scott

    Animal welfare concerns have plagued the professional zoo and aquarium field for decades. Societal differences remain concerning the well-being of animals, but it appears a shift is emerging. Scientific studies of animal welfare have dramatically increased, establishing that many previous...

  4. Using radio frequency identification for behavioral monitoring in little blue penguins

    Contributor(s):: Kalafut, Kathryn L., Kinley, Rickey

    A common goal of captive animal institutions is to create environments that allow for the most naturalistic behavior from their animals. Behavioral data is often used as a measure of how an animal is thriving in its current environment. Obtaining this data can be very difficult and...

  5. Understanding Preferences for Humane and Cruel Treatment of Pest Rodents in Site C, Khayelitsha, South Africa

    Contributor(s):: Buckland, Adam, Nattrass, Nicoli

    The cruel treatment of pest rodents is a neglected area of study. This paper uses a representative survey from Khayelitsha (Cape Town) to show that a minority of residents preferred rodent control to be humane but that most did not care how rats are killed and almost a fifth said they would be...

  6. Turning Intentions into Animal Welfare Improvement in the Asian Livestock Sector

    Contributor(s):: Sinclair, Michelle, Morton, John, Phillips, Clive J. C.

    Intentions form the basis of behavioral action to improve animal welfare; however an intention-behavior gap has been previously identified. Livestock stakeholders in China, Malaysia, Vietnam and Thailand (n = 1041) involved in slaughter and transport completed a survey in which they were asked...

  7. Toward a Choice-Based Judgment Bias Task for Horses

    Contributor(s):: Hintze, Sara, Roth, Emma, Bachmann, Iris, Würbel, Hanno

    Judgment bias tasks for nonhuman animals are promising tools to assess emotional valence as a measure of animal welfare. In view of establishing a valid judgment bias task for horses, the present study aimed to evaluate 2 versions (go/no-go and active choice) of an auditory judgment bias task for...

  8. Three-year route census study on welfare status of free-roaming cats in old-town Onomichi, Japan

    Contributor(s):: Seo, Aira, Tanida, Hajime

    The free-roaming cat population in Japan is increasing, and these cats are regarded as a tourism resource in some areas; however, their welfare status is unknown. Thus, this study assessed the welfare status of free-roaming cats in the old town of Onomichi City, Hiroshima, Japan. Route censuses...

  9. A Survey of Rabbit Handling Methods Within the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland

    Contributor(s):: Oxley, James Andrew, Ellis, Clare Frances, McBride, E. Anne, McCormick, Wanda Denise

    Rabbits are commonly kept in a variety of settings, including homes, laboratories, and veterinary clinics. Despite the popularity of keeping this prey species, little research has investigated current methods of handling. The aim of this study was to examine the experience of caregivers (owners...

  10. Steel-Jawed Leghold Traps and Killing Neck Snares: Similar Injuries Command Change to Agreement on International Humane Trapping Standards

    Contributor(s):: Proulx, Gilbert, Rodtka, Dwight

    According to the Agreement on International Humane Trapping Standards (AIHTS), which was signed by the European Community, Canada, and Russia in 1997, killing devices used for the capture of canids and other fur-bearing nonhuman animals should render an animal irreversibly unconscious within 300...

  11. Small Flocks Show Higher Levels of Welfare in Mexican Semi-Intensive Sheep Farming Systems

    Contributor(s):: Mondragón-Ancelmo, Jaime, Hernández, Patricia García, Rubio, Rolando Rojo, Vara, Ignacio Arturo Domínguez, Gigena, Marcia del Campo, Napolitano, Fabio

    In order to assess the level of sheep welfare in small traditional farms as compared with farms of increased size we evaluated several animal-based parameters and applied a modified Animal Needs Index (ANI) protocol in farms located in the North-East of the country. We selected ten sheep farms: 5...

  12. Single- or Pair-Housed: Which Is Better for Captive Southern Tamanduas?

    Contributor(s):: Catapani, Mariana Labão, Pires, José Salatiel Rodrigues, Vasconcellos, Angélica da Silva

    The captive environment can limit some important behavioral options for nonhuman animals, which often results in decreased welfare. The companion of a conspecific can be a source of complexity in captivity, but this aspect has received little attention for solitary species. This study...

  13. Reproduction and monogamy in captive flock of greater flamingos (Phoenicopterus Roseus)

    Contributor(s):: Sandri, Camillo, Sammarini, Carolina, Regaiolli, Barbara, Spiezio, Caterina, Piccirillo, Alessandra

    Due to the great number of greater flamingos in captivity and their long life span, studying their behavior and welfare might be useful to improve the husbandry and breeding of this species in zoos. This study aimed to investigate factors affecting the breeding activity of captive greater...

  14. Reasons People Surrender Unowned and Owned Cats to Australian Animal Shelters and Barriers to Assuming Ownership of Unowned Cats

    Contributor(s):: Zito, Sarah, Morton, John, Vankan, Dianne, Paterson, Mandy, Bennett, Pauleen C., Rand, Jacquie, Phillips, Clive J. C.

    Most cats surrendered to nonhuman animal shelters are identified as unowned, and the surrender reason for these cats is usually simply recorded as “stray.” A cross-sectional study was conducted with people surrendering cats to 4 Australian animal shelters. Surrenderers of unowned cats commonly...

  15. Positive Reinforcement Training for Blood Collection in Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) Results in Undetectable Elevations in Serum Cortisol Levels: A Preliminary Investigation

    Contributor(s):: Joyce-Zuniga, Nicole M., Newberry, Ruth C., Robbins, Charles T., Ware, Jasmine V., Jansen, Heiko T., Nelson, O. Lynne

    Training nonhuman animals in captivity for participation in routine husbandry procedures is believed to produce a lower stress environment compared with undergoing a general anesthetic event for the same procedure. This hypothesis rests largely on anecdotal evidence that the captive subjects...

  16. Perceptions of Social Responsibility of Prominent Animal Welfare Groups

    Contributor(s):: Widmar, Nicole J. Olynk, Morgan, Carissa J., Croney, Candace C.

    Nonhuman animal welfare is an increasingly important component of consumer expectations of corporate social responsibility (CSR). The extent to which prominent animal welfare or protection organizations may influence people’s perceptions of food industry CSR may be related to an organization’s...

  17. On-Farm Evaluation of an Automatic Enrichment Device with Maize Silage for Laying Hens

    Contributor(s):: Giersberg, Mona Franziska, Kemper, Nicole, Spindler, Birgit

    Challenges in alternative housing for laying hens are barren functional areas such as winter gardens and the occurrence of behavioral disorders. Environmental enrichment is a measure to deal with these problems. Therefore, an enrichment device offering maize silage automatically was tested in two...

  18. Olfactory Enrichment in California Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus): An Effective Tool for Captive Welfare?

    Contributor(s):: Samuelson, Mystera M., Lauderdale, Lisa K., Pulis, Kelly, Solangi, Moby, Hoffland, Tim, Lyn, Heidi

    In the wild, California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) are exposed to a wide variety of sensory information, which cannot be replicated in captive environments. Therefore, unique procedures are necessary for maintaining physiological and psychological health in nonhuman animals in captivity....

  19. The Natural Behavior Debate: Two Conceptions of Animal Welfare

    Contributor(s):: Browning, Heather

    The performance of natural behavior is commonly used as a criterion in the determination of animal welfare. This is still true, despite many authors having demonstrated that it is not a necessary component of welfare – some natural behaviors may decrease welfare, while some unnatural behaviors...

  20. My Reflections on Understanding Animal Emotions for Improving the Life of Animals in Zoos

    Contributor(s):: Grandin, Temple

    Scientists are often reluctant to attribute emotions to nonhuman animals that are similar to human emotions. When the author published her early studies, reviewers prohibited the word fear. Fearful behavior had to be described as agitated. The core emotional systems described by Panksepp may...