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Tags: Cages + Mammals

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  1. A Decade of Progress toward Ending the Intensive Confinement of Farm Animals in the United States

    Contributor(s):: Sara Shields, Paul Shapiro, Andrew Rowan

    In this paper, the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) farm animal protection work over the preceding decade is described from the perspective of the organization. Prior to 2002, there were few legal protections for animals on the farm, and in 2005, a new campaign at the HSUS began to...

  2. Think Outside the Cage: Moving Towards New Understandings of Companion Rabbits

    Contributor(s):: Ruthann Drummond

    Rabbits are the third most common companion mammal in Western homes, and their popularity continues to rise. However, they are also one of the most broadly used animal resources around the world, commonly being bred for their food, their fur, and their utility as biological models in animal...

  3. Blue foxes' ( Vulpes lagopus) motivation to gain access and interact with various resources

    Contributor(s):: Koistinen, T., Korhonen, H. T., Hamalainen, E., Mononen, J.

    We analysed the willingness of blue foxes ( Vulpes lagopus) to work for and utilise five resources: a platform, wooden block, sand floor, nest box and empty space. Ten juvenile blue fox males were housed singly in apparatus consisting of three cages connected with one-way doors through the walls...

  4. Environmentally enriching American mink ( Neovison vison) increases lymphoid organ weight and skeletal symmetry, and reveals differences between two sub-types of stereotypic behaviour

    Contributor(s):: Diez-Leon, M., Bursian, S., Galicia, D., Napolitano, A., Palme, R., Mason, G.

    Enrichment studies for wild carnivores (e.g., in zoos) are often short-term, use enrichments of unknown motivational significance, and focus on glucocorticoids and stereotypic behaviour (SB), ignoring other stress-relevant variables. Our study assessed the broad behavioural and physiological...

  5. Practical physical and behavioral measures to assess the socialization spectrum of cats in a shelter-like setting during a three day period

    Contributor(s):: Slater, M., Garrison, L., Miller, K., Weiss, E., Makolinski, K., Drain, N., Mirontshuk, A.

    Animal welfare organizations routinely accept large numbers of cats with unknown histories, and whose backgrounds vary from well-socialized pets to cats that have had little or no contact with humans. Agencies are challenged with making the determination of socialization level in a highly...

  6. Effect of cage type on fecal corticosterone concentration in buck rabbits during the reproductive cycle

    Contributor(s):: Cornale, P., Macchi, E., Renna, M., Prola, L., Perona, G., Mimosi, A.

    Fecal corticosterone concentration (FCC) was measured in 14 buck rabbits individually housed in standard-dimension cages (SC) or in bigger cages (BC; with a volume more than double that of SC and equipped with a plastic foot mat) during 4 consecutive reproductive cycles. Cage type and...

  7. Evaluation of environmental and intrinsic factors that contribute to stereotypic behavior in captive rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta)

    Contributor(s):: Gottlieb, D. H., Maier, A., Coleman, K.

    Full body repetitive behaviors, known as motor stereotypic behaviors (MSBs), are one of the most commonly seen abnormal behaviors in captive non-human primates, and are frequently used as a behavioral measure of well-being. The main goal of this paper was to examine the role of environmental...

  8. Behaviour, wounds, weight loss and adrenal weight of rabbit does as affected by semi-group housing

    Contributor(s):: Buijs, S., Maertens, L., Hermans, K., Vangeyte, J., Tuyttens, F. A. M.

    Group housing is often assumed to improve the welfare of gregarious species. Whether this is actually the case depends on the advantages (e.g. more opportunity for social and locomotor behaviour) and disadvantages (e.g. increased fighting and wounding) induced by the specific housing type. We...

  9. Stereotypic mice are aggressed by their cage-mates, and tend to be poor demonstrators in social learning tasks

    Contributor(s):: Harper, L., Choleris, E., Ervin, K., Fureix, C., Reynolds, K., Walker, M., Mason, G.

    Stereotypic behaviours (SBs) are linked with behavioural inflexibility and resemble symptoms of autism, suggesting that stereotypic animals could have autistic-like social impairments. SBs are also common in caged mice. We therefore hypothesised relationships between stereotypic and social...

  10. Evidence of competition for nest sites by laying hens in large furnished cages

    Contributor(s):: Hunniford, M. E., Torrey, S., Bedecarrats, G., Duncan, I. J. H., Widowski, T. M.

    Furnished cages are designed to accommodate behaviour considered important to laying hens, particularly nesting behaviour. Few researchers have studied the degree of competition for nest sites or the extent to which the amount of nest space affects nesting behaviour in large furnished cages. We...

  11. The effects of witnessing managemental procedures during the light versus the dark phase of the light cycle on behaviour, performance and welfare of laboratory rats

    Contributor(s):: Abou-Ismail, U. A., Mohamed, R. A., El-Kholya, S. Z.

    Research has indicated that witnessing managemental procedures are stressful to laboratory rats. Yet there has been little investigation into whether the time of witnessing these procedures affects behaviour and welfare in these animals. Ninety-six rats, representing two batches, were used in...

  12. Environmental factors that affect the behavior and welfare of domestic cats ( Felis silvestris catus) housed in cages

    Contributor(s):: Stella, J., Croney, C., Buffington, T.

    Understanding environmental factors that affect the behavior of cats in cages is important if caretakers are to improve the welfare of confined cats. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of the macro (room) and micro (cage) environments on cat behavior and their implications for cat...

  13. Behavioral assessment of intermittent wheel running and individual housing in mice in the laboratory

    Contributor(s):: Pham, T. M., Brene, S., Baumans, V.

    Physical cage enrichment - exercise devices for rodents in the laboratory - often includes running wheels. This study compared responses of mice in enriched physical and social conditions and in standard social conditions to wheel running, individual housing, and open-field test. The study...

  14. Cage size preference in rats in the laboratory

    Contributor(s):: Patterson-Kane, E. G.

    The size of an enclosure is an integral part of how well it accommodates a nonhuman animal's welfare; however, most enrichment studies concentrate on modifying the area inside the enclosure rather than enlarging it. It has been suggested that rats have little need for more cage space, but there...

  15. Cage use and feeding height preferences of captive common marmosets ( Callithrix j. jacchus ) in two-tier cages

    Contributor(s):: Buchanan-Smith, H. M., Shand, C., Morris, K.

    Determining appropriate feeding regimes has important welfare implications for captive primates. This study examined the preference of food bowl heights in 6 pairs of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) housed in a 2-tier cage system. Given that marmosets are arboreal and spend most of their...

  16. Effect of breed, cage type, and reproductive phase on fecal corticosterone levels in doe rabbits

    Contributor(s):: Prola, L., Cornale, P., Renna, M., Macchi, E., Perona, G., Mimosi, A.

    Fecal corticosterone concentration (FCC) is increasingly being used as a noninvasive indicator of stress in assessment of nonhuman animal welfare. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of breed, cage type, reproductive phase, and their interactions on FCC levels in doe rabbits. A total of...

  17. Laboratory rodent welfare: thinking outside the cage

    Contributor(s):: Balcombe, J.

    This commentary presents the case against housing rats and mice in laboratory cages; the commentary bases its case on their sentience, natural history, and the varied detriments of laboratory conditions. The commentary gives 5 arguments to support this position: (a) rats and mice have a high...

  18. Legal space requirement stipulations for animals in the laboratory: are they adequate?

    Contributor(s):: Reinhardt, V., Reinhardt, A.

    Animals in the laboratory need the legally required "empty space" to meet their basic spatial requirements for postural adjustment, but they also deserve functional-structured-space for species-typical locomotor behavior and dynamic interaction with their physical environment. Primary enclosures...

  19. Pair housing for female longtailed and rhesus macaques in the laboratory: behavior in protected contact versus full contact

    Contributor(s):: Baker, K. C., Crockett, C. M., Lee, G. H., Oettinger, B. C., Schoof, V., Thom, J. P.

    Pair housing for caged macaques in the laboratory generally allows unrestricted tactile contact but, less commonly, may involve limited contact via grooming-contact bars or perforated panels. The purpose of using this protected contact housing, which prevents entry into pair-mates' cages,...

  20. Primate location preference in a double-tier cage: the effects of illumination and cage height

    Contributor(s):: Maclean, E. L., Prior, S. R., Platt, M. L., Brannon, E. M.

    Nonhuman primates are frequently housed in double-tier arrangements with significant differences between the environments of the upper and lower-row cages. Although several studies have investigated whether this arrangement alters monkeys' behavior, no studies have addressed the two most notable...