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  1. The progress in nutrition research of musk deer: implication for conservation

    Contributor(s):: Wang, WenXia, Zhou, Ran, He, Lan, Liu, ShuQiang, Zhou, JunTong, Qi, Lei, Li, LinHai, Hu, DeFu

    Musk deer ( Moschus spp.) are small forest ungulates that are unique to Asia and are mainly distributed in China. In the last 30 years, because of indiscriminate trapping, hunting, and killing of the musk deer for musk and the loss of suitable habitat due to deforestation, the distribution and...

  2. Evaluation of environmental and intrinsic factors that contribute to stereotypic behavior in captive rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta)

    Contributor(s):: Gottlieb, D. H., Maier, A., Coleman, K.

    Full body repetitive behaviors, known as motor stereotypic behaviors (MSBs), are one of the most commonly seen abnormal behaviors in captive non-human primates, and are frequently used as a behavioral measure of well-being. The main goal of this paper was to examine the role of environmental...

  3. Behavioral and hormonal consequences of transporting giant pandas from China to the United States

    Contributor(s):: Snyder, R. J., Perdue, B. M., Powell, D. M., Forthman, D. L., Bloomsmith, M. A., Maple, T. L.

    Zoological institutions strive to ensure the welfare of nonhuman animals in captivity. Part of this effort involves reducing the level of distress experienced by an animal to the greatest extent possible. However, some necessary zoo management practices such as transportation induce stress...

  4. Tourism and infant-directed aggression in Tibetan macaques ( Macaca thibetana) at Mt. Huangshan, China

    Contributor(s):: Self, S., Sheeran, L. K., Matheson, M. D., Li, JinHua, Pelton, O., Harding, S., Wagner, R. S.

  5. Human-wildlife conflicts influence attitudes but not necessarily behaviors: factors driving the poaching of bears in China

    Contributor(s):: Liu, Fang, McShea, W. J., Garshelis, D. L., Zhu, XiaoJian, Wang, DaJun, Shao, LiangKun

  6. Suffering in diseased pigs as expressed by behavioural, clinical and clinical-chemical traits, in a well defined parasite model

    | Contributor(s):: Reiner, G., Hubner, K., Hepp, S.

    In assessing the quality of life of farm animals, the absence of disease has been given highest priority. During the course of infection, sickness and suffering refer to a coordinated set of behavioural and physiological changes. For a better understanding and assessment of animal suffering due...

  7. Behaviour of two genotypes of growing-finishing pig in three different housing systems

    | Contributor(s):: Guy, J. H., Rowlinson, P., Chadwick, J. P., Ellis, M.

    This trial compared the behaviour of 720 growing-finishing pigs, progeny of either indoor (Large White x Landrace) or outdoor (part-Meishan or part-Duroc) sows mated to Large White boars, when housed in either outdoor paddocks, straw yards or fully-slatted pens. Space allowance per pig in outdoor...

  8. A note on environmental elements as essential prerequisites for behavioural expression: a case study of Pere David's deer

    | Contributor(s):: Li, ChunWang, Jiang, ZhiGang, Zeng, Yan, You, ZhangQiang

    To understand the relationship between behavioural expression of Pere David's deer and environmental elements, we carried out an experiment in the Dafeng Pere David's Deer Nature Reserve, China. From May to September 2001, we observed maintenance behaviour and rut behaviour in free-ranging Pere...

  9. Impact of activity space on the reproductive behaviour of giant panda ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca ) in captivity

    | Contributor(s):: Peng, JianJun, Jiang, ZhiGang, Qin, GuangYong, Huang, QunCe, Li, YuXiao, Jiao, Zhen, Zhang, FengQiu, Li, ZongWei, Zhang, JinGuo, Lu, YanPing, Liu, XueFeng, Liu, JinPeng

    We studied the impact of activity space on the reproductive behaviours of eleven healthy adult female and three adult male giant pandas with natural mating ability from the Beijing Zoo, the Lanzhou Zoo, the Chengdu Zoo and the Chengdu Giant Panda Breeding Center during their non-mating and mating...

  10. Environmental enrichment influences of pig behavior, performance and meat quality

    | Contributor(s):: Hill, J. D., McGlone, J. J., Fullwood, S. D., Miller, M. F.

    320 pigs (PIC commercial crossbreds and PIC 1/8th Meishan crossbreds) were exposed to 1 of 5 environmental treatments from weaning to slaughter at >110 kg body weight. The treatments consisted of isolation (NEG), weekly normal handling (NOR), daily normal handling + enrichment devices (TOYS),...

  11. Behavioural responses by yaks in different physiological states (lactating, dry or replacement heifers), when grazing natural pasture in the spring (dry and germinating) season on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau

    | Contributor(s):: Ding, LuMing, Long, RuiJun, Yang, YuHai, Xu, SongHe, Wang, ChangTing

    Using heterogeneous vegetation in alpine grassland through grazing is a necessary component of de-intensification of livestock systems and conservation of natural environments. However, better understanding of the dynamics of animal feeding behaviour would improve pasture and livestock grazing...

  12. Feeding behaviour of yaks on spring, transitional, summer and winter pasture in the alpine region of the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau

    | Contributor(s):: Ding, LuMing, Long, RuiJun, Shang, ZhanHuan, Wang, ChangTing, Yang, YuHai, Xu, SongHe

    Of the present estimated world population of 14.2 million yaks, approximately 13.3 million occur within Chinese territories (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2003). Although there is an extensive bibliography covering the species, few studies have been conducted in the...

  13. Maternal infanticide in sows: incidence and behavioural comparisons between savaging and non-savaging sows at parturition

    | Contributor(s):: Chen, CongYing, Gilbert, C. L., Yang, GuangCheng, Guo, YuanMei, Segonds-Pichon, A., Ma, JunWu, Evans, G., Brenig, B., Sargent, C., Affara, N., Huang, LuSheng

    Aggressive behaviour by newly farrowed sows towards their own offspring, known as savaging, occurs commonly in the domestic pig, with a significant impact upon both the agricultural economy and animal welfare. The aims of this study were to investigate the incidence and nature of this behaviour...

  14. Relationships between exhibit naturalism, animal visibility and visitor interest in a Chinese Zoo

    | Contributor(s):: Davey, G.

    Efforts to meet the welfare needs of captive animals (such as the provision of environmental enrichment and naturalistic furnishings) often compromise visitors' needs (naturalistic exhibits often decrease the visibility of animals on display even though visitors pay to view them). The literature...

  15. Tourist impact on Tibetan macaques

    | Contributor(s):: Matheson, M. D., Sheeran, L. K., Li, JinHua, Wagner, R. S.

    Ecotourism is a growing sector of the tourism industry, but few studies to date have quantified its impacts on local people, tourists and wildlife. We present a preliminary study on threat and affiliative behaviors of two groups of free-ranging Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) as a function of...

  16. The effects of visitor density on sika deer ( Cervus nippon ) behaviour in Zhu-Yu-Wan Park, China

    | Contributor(s):: Shen-Jin, L., Todd, P. A., Yan, Y., Lin, Y., Hongmei, F., Wan-Hong, W.

    Visitors to zoos are a source of potential stress to certain captive-housed animals. Much research has focused on Europe and America, whereas the effect of human audiences on the behaviour of captive animals in Chinese parks has so far not been investigated. Sika deer (Cervus nippon) housed in...