The Days and Nights of Zoo Elephants: Using Epidemiology to Better Understand Stereotypic Behavior of African Elephants (Loxodonta africana) and Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus) in North American Zoos
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| Contributor(s):: Brian J. Greco, Cheryl L. Meehan, Jen N. Hogan, Katherine A. Leighty, Jill Mellen, Georgia J. Mason, Joy A. Mench
Stereotypic behavior is an important indicator of compromised welfare. Zoo elephants are documented to perform stereotypic behavior, but the factors that contribute to performance have not been systematically assessed. We collected behavioral data on 89 elephants (47 African [Loxodonta...
A comparison of zoo animal behavior in the presence of familiar and unfamiliar people
| Contributor(s):: Martin, R. A., Melfi, V.
As recorded in domestic nonhuman animals, regular interactions between animals in zoos and keepers and the resulting relationship formed (human-animal relationship [HAR]) are likely to influence the animals' behaviors with associated welfare consequences. HAR formation requires that zoo animals...
Prevalence of stereotypies and its possible causes among captive Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus) in Tamil Nadu, India
| Contributor(s):: Vanitha, Varadharajan, Thiyagesan, Krishnamoorthy, Baskaran, Nagarajan
Animals in captivity are often confined in small barren enclosures, preventing adequate exercise, and socialization with conspecifics. Captivity is also known for depriving young individuals' association with maternal relatives by weaning away from their mothers' earlier than what their peers...
The Ethical Disconnect of the Circus: Humanity's acceptance of Performing Elephants
| Contributor(s):: Jaynes, Mike
Social group formation and genetic relatedness in reintroduced Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus) in Thailand
| Contributor(s):: Thitaram, C., Dejchaisri, S., Somgird, C., Angkawanish, T., Brown, J., Phumphuay, R., Chomdech, S., Kangwanpong, D.
Captive-held elephants were recruited from several parts of Thailand and released as part of a reintroduction project. Wild elephants with a herd matriarch generally contain the same matrilineal line and are genetically related. However, reintroduced elephants are less likely to be related, but...
African elephants ( Loxodonta africana) can detect TNT using olfaction: implications for biosensor application
| Contributor(s):: Miller, A. K., Hensman, M. C., Hensman, S., Schultz, K., Reid, P., Shore, M., Brown, J., Furton, K. G., Lee, S.
The impact of war on local wildlife can be devastating, the effects of which are often felt well beyond the terminus of the initial threat. In areas where wildlife experiences unrestricted movement through previously affected zones, residual, unexploded landmines present a significant and...
GPS technology as a proxy tool for determining relationships in social animals: an example with African elephants
| Contributor(s):: Hacker, C. E., Horback, K. M., Miller, L. J.
The potential application of GPS technology in determining relationships among social animals was addressed in this study of eight African elephants residing at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park in Escondido, CA, USA between 2009 and 2011. GPS coordinates were collected over nine 24 h periods from...
A case study: fecal corticosteroid and behavior as indicators of welfare during relocation of an Asian elephant
| Contributor(s):: Laws, N., Ganswindt, A., Heistermann, M., Harris, M., Harris, S., Sherwin, C.
This study was a preliminary investigation of an enzyme immunoassay for measuring fecal glucocorticoid metabolites in a male Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) by investigating changes in behavior and cortisol metabolite excretion associated with a putative stressful event. The study collected...
Some preliminary evidence of the social facilitation of mounting behavior in a juvenile bull Asian elephant ( Elephas maximus )
| Contributor(s):: Rees, P. A.
This study recorded sexual behaviour within a captive herd of 8 Asian elephants in England, UK, for approximately 230 h on 50 days over a period of 10 months (January-November 1999). A single adult and a single juvenile bull mounting cows more than 160 times were observed. When the juvenile bull...
Stereotypic behaviour of a female Asiatic elephant ( Elephas maximus ) in a zoo
| Contributor(s):: Elzanowski, A., Sergiel, A.
This study recorded daytime behaviour of a female Asiatic elephant at the Municipal Zoo, Wroclaw, Poland, in both an indoor pen and an outdoor paddock as continuous scan sampling for 140 hr, over 35 days in 1 year. Stereotypic sequences involved bouts of highly repetitive stereotypic movements...
Personality assessment in African elephants ( Loxodonta africana): comparing the temporal stability of ethological coding versus trait rating
| Contributor(s):: Horback, K. M., Miller, L. J., Kuczaj, S. A., II
The consistency of personality assessment was addressed in this study of 12 zoological African elephants living at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park in Escondido, CA, USA during the 2010 and 2011 summer seasons. Using 480 h of observational behavior data, three personality traits were determined...
The effects of GPS collars on African elephant (Loxodonta africana) behavior at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park
| Contributor(s):: Horback, K. M., Miller, L. J., Andrews, J., Kuczaj, S. A., II, Anderson, M.
Using personality ratings and cortisol to characterize individual differences in African Elephants (Loxodonta africana)
| Contributor(s):: Grand, A. P., Kuhar, C. W., Leighty, K. A., Bettinger, T. L., Laudenslager, M. L.
Predicting spatial aspects of human-elephant conflict
| Contributor(s):: Sitati, N. W., Walpole, M. J., Smith, R. J., Leader-Williams, N.
Human-elephant conflict (HEC) in Africa occurs wherever these two species coincide, and poses serious challenges to wildlife managers, local communities and elephants alike. Mitigation requires a detailed understanding of underlying patterns and processes. Although temporal patterns of HEC are...
Behavior of picketed circus elephants
| Contributor(s):: Friend, T. H.
The behaviour of 14 female Asian (Elephas maximus) and 3 female African (Loxodonta africana) elephants who performed 2 shows each day with a circus that travelled to a new location (40 to 250 km from the previous day's lot) daily, was studied. When not performing or working, the elephants were...
Review of wallowing in pigs: description of the behaviour and its motivational basis
| Contributor(s):: Bracke, M. B. M.
Wallowing, i.e. coating the body surface with mud, is a natural behaviour of pigs, commonly observed in feral pigs and wild boar, but rarely provided for in current housing systems for domestic pigs. Furthermore, in welfare science the subject has not been receiving much attention. This paper...
The effect of penning versus picketing on stereotypic behavior of circus elephants
| Contributor(s):: Friend, T. H., Parker, M. L.
The behaviour of 9 female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) who performed 2 shows each day with a circus that travelled to a new location in the USA (40 to 250 km from the previous day's lot) daily or every 2 days was studied during the 1996 and 1998 seasons. When not performing or working, the...
Carrots and sticks, people and elephants: Rank, domination, and training
| Contributor(s):: Lehnhardt, John, Galloway, Marie
Behavior of female African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in captivity
| Contributor(s):: Adams, J., Berg, J. K.
Food hiding and enrichment in captive Asian elephants
| Contributor(s):: Wiedenmayer, C.
Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) kept in zoos usually spend less time foraging than their wild conspecifics. In order to increase foraging in a group of 5 captive Asian elephants, peanuts were hidden above a distinctive outdoor enclosure structure, the stone border. It was expected that the...