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  1. Positive Reinforcement Training for Blood Collection in Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) Results in Undetectable Elevations in Serum Cortisol Levels: A Preliminary Investigation

    Contributor(s):: Joyce-Zuniga, Nicole M., Newberry, Ruth C., Robbins, Charles T., Ware, Jasmine V., Jansen, Heiko T., Nelson, O. Lynne

    Training nonhuman animals in captivity for participation in routine husbandry procedures is believed to produce a lower stress environment compared with undergoing a general anesthetic event for the same procedure. This hypothesis rests largely on anecdotal evidence that the captive subjects...

  2. Investigating Potential Effects of the Contraceptive Implanon on the Behavior of Free-Ranging Adult Female Barbary Macaques

    Contributor(s):: Maijer, Amanda M., Semple, Stuart

    In recent years, the use of hormonal contraception in captive, free-ranging, and wild mammal populations has increased, but the effects on these nonhuman animals' behavior and the associated welfare impacts remain poorly understood. This study of free-ranging adult female Barbary macaques (Macaca...

  3. Does Viewing a Picture of a Pet During a Mental Arithmetic Task Lower Stress Levels?

    Contributor(s):: Ein, Natalie, Hadad, Marilyn, Reed, Maureen J., Vickers, Kristin

    Pets can reduce stress in their owner; however, they are not always permitted in public and institutional places. This study examined the impact of people viewing a picture of their pet versus other images on stress levels. One hundred and twenty participants were randomly assigned to one of six...

  4. Attachment Anxiety and Avoidance Influence Pet Choice and Pet-directed Behaviors

    Contributor(s):: Green, Jeffrey D., Coy, Anthony E., Mathews, Maureen A.

    Attachment theory is a useful lens through which to examine both perceptions and selection of companion animals. Study 1 compared perceptions of dogs and cats, and found that dogs were perceived as having more positive relationship qualities and secure attachment-related characteristics, whereas...

  5. Pet Dogs Improve Family Functioning and Reduce Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Contributor(s):: Wright, Hannah, Hall, Sophie, Hames, Annette, Hardiman, Jessica, Mills, Richard, Team, Paws Project, Mills, Daniel

    There is increasing evidence to suggest that dogs are beneficial for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in therapy sessions, and anecdotal reports suggest that dogs may have wider benefits, in a family setting. This study investigated the effect of dog ownership on family functioning...

  6. Exploring Synchronicity in the Heart Rates of Familiar and Unfamiliar Pairs of Horses and Humans Undertaking an In-Hand Task

    Contributor(s):: Hockenhull, Jo, Young, Tamsin J., Redgate, Sarah E., Birke, Lynda

    Physiological responses that occur in horses and humans during their interactions, on the ground and during ridden work, have been investigated in a number of studies with some conflicting results. These suggest that in some situations emotional state may be transferred from humans to horses and...

  7. The Psychological and Physiological Effects of Using a Therapy Dog in Mindfulness Training

    Contributor(s):: Henry, Courtney L., Crowley, Susan L.

    The present study was a randomized controlled trial examining the psychological and physiological effects of adding animal-assisted therapy (AAT) to a modified Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction program (MBSR) for clients experiencing psychological distress. It was hypothesized that AAT would...

  8. Childhood Experiences with Family Pets and Internalizing Symptoms in Early Adulthood

    Contributor(s):: Girardi, Alberta, Pozzulo, Joanna D.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether childhood experiences with family pets are associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety in early adulthood. Undergraduate students (n=318) responded to an online survey that included questions about bonding with childhood pets, exposure...

  9. Brief Unstructured Interaction with a Dog Reduces Distress

    Contributor(s):: Crossman, Molly K., Kazdin, Alan E., Knudson, Krista

    In 2013, 11% of the US population experienced serious psychological distress. This problem of psychological distress is exacerbated in colleges and universities, where more than half of students report experiencing moderate to severe depression. In spite of the prevalence of this psychological...

  10. Reliability and validity of a questionnaire survey in canine anxiety research

    Contributor(s):: Tiira, Katriina, Lohi, Hannes

    Canine behavior can be assessed through behavioral testing or questionnaire surveys. Behavioral tests, often observed by independent experts, can provide objective data, but capture only a short behavioral sequence in a defined situation and are practical only for small study cohorts....

  11. Prenatal stress and ketamine affect the behavioral and physiological responsiveness of early adolescent pigs to a novel arena and social confrontation test

    Contributor(s):: Backus, Brittany L., Bryer, Pamela J., Sutherland, Mhairi A.

    Elevated maternal glucocorticoid concentrations during gestation can affect how the offspring respond, both behaviorally and physiologically, to a challenge later in life. The objectives of this study were to first, determine if elevated maternal glucocorticoid concentrations during late...

  12. Human–animal interface: The effects of handler's stress on the performance of canines in an explosive detection task

    Contributor(s):: Zubedat, Salman, Aga-Mizrachi, Shlomit, Cymerblit-Sabba, Adi, Shwartz, Jonathan, Leon, Joseph Fiko, Rozen, Shlomo, Varkovitzky, Itay, Eshed, Yuval, Grinstein, Dan, Avital, Avi

    The handler–dog interaction is significantly important for the canine performance. The handler error may mislead the dog into false identification, and the probability to commit such an error is altered often by the handlers’ stressful state. In the current study we have focused on stress...

  13. The effect of morphine on changes in behaviour and physiology in intraperitoneally vaccinated Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    Contributor(s):: Nordgreen, Janicke, Bjørge, Mette Helen, Janczak, Andrew M., Poppe, Trygve, Koppang, Erling Olaf, Ranheim, Birgit, Horsberg, Tor Einar

    Granulomatous peritonitis is often induced by intraperitoneal vaccination in fish. Peritonitis is a very painful condition in mammals, but little is known about how fish experience this condition. In a previous experiment we found increased latency to eat and a tendency to decreased swimming...

  14. Behavioral reactions relate to adrenal activity and temperament in male clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa)

    Contributor(s):: DeCaluwe, Heather B., Wielebnowski, Nadja C., Howard, JoGayle, Pelican, Katharine M., Ottinger, Mary Ann

    Due to strong intra-specific aggression and frequent adverse reactions to changes encountered in the captive setting, clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa) are particularly difficult to manage as a self-sustaining population in zoos. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of behavioral...

  15. Assessing the emotions of laboratory rats

    Contributor(s):: Makowska, I. Joanna, Weary, Daniel M.

    Rats are one of the most commonly used species in research, and decades of testing have yielded a large amount of information pertaining to their experience of emotion. The aim of this review is to bring together information on rat emotion from across a number of disciplines and over several...

  16. Simply a nest? Effects of different enrichments on stereotypic and anxiety-related behaviour in mice

    Contributor(s):: Gross, Alexandra Nam-Mi, Engel, Anna Katarina Julia, Würbel, Hanno

    Improving the home cages of laboratory mice by environmental enrichment has been widely used to reduce cage stereotypies and anxiety-related behaviour in behavioural tests. However, enrichment studies differ substantially in type, complexity and variation of enrichments. Therefore, it is unclear...

  17. Environmental enrichment exerts anxiolytic effects in the Indian field mouse (Mus booduga)

    Contributor(s):: Ragu Varman, Durairaj, Marimuthu, Ganapathy, Emmanuvel Rajan, Koilmani

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is known to have behavioral and physiological anxiolytic effects in several animal models. However, it is as yet unclear how EE modulates behavior of wild animals and the underlying molecular mechanisms. The adult male field mouse Mus booduga (n=42) captured at...

  18. Does structural enrichment for toxicology studies improve zebrafish welfare?

    Contributor(s):: Wilkes, Luanne, Owen, Stewart F., Readman, Gareth D., Sloman, Katherine A., Wilson, Rod W.

    Enrichment of the environment for captive animals is aimed at producing beneficial effects on the behaviour and physiology of relevant species, and is commonly used to reduce harmful social behaviours and stereotypies. However, little work has been undertaken to develop enrichment strategies for...

  19. Behavioural fear and heart rate responses of horses after exposure to novel objects: Effects of habituation

    Contributor(s):: Leiner, Lisa, Fendt, Markus

    The emotion fear promotes the fitness of wild animals. In a farm environment, exaggerated fear, e.g., in horses, can cause several problems. Therefore, knowledge about fear in horses helps to prevent or to handle potential fear-inducing situations. The present study investigated which behavioural...

  20. The basic neuroscience of emotional experiences in mammals: The case of subcortical FEAR circuitry and implications for clinical anxiety

    Contributor(s):: Panksepp, Jaak, Fuchs, Thomas, Iacobucci, Paolo

    Evidence from behavioral neuroscience strongly suggests that the unconditional (innate) capacity to experience fear, along with fear-typical patterns of autonomic and behavioral arousal, arise from specific systems of the brain—the most prominent being a FEAR circuit which courses between the...