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  1. A tail of two monkeys: social housing for nonhuman primates in the research laboratory setting

    Contributor(s):: Seelig, D.

    Despite great adaptability, most nonhuman primates require regular tactile contact with conspecifics for their psychological well being. By illustrating the inherent value of social contact and by providing clues to the best ways of satisfying this need, behavioral studies are useful in designing...

  2. An empirical case study examining effectiveness of environmental enrichment in two captive Australian Sea Lions ( Neophoca cinerea )

    Contributor(s):: Smith, B. P., Litchfield, C. A.

    This case study examined the effect of environmental enrichment on the activity budgets of a male and female Australian Sea Lion (Neophoca cinerea) housed together at Adelaide Zoo. Using non-food-related (intrinsic) and food-related (extrinsic) enrichment objects, the study conducted an ABABA...

  3. Behavioral responses of silverback gorillas ( Gorilla gorilla gorilla ) to videos

    Contributor(s):: Maloney, M. A., Leighty, K. A., Kuhar, C. W., Bettinger, T. L.

    This study examined the impact of video presentations on the behavior of 4 silverback, western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). On each of 5 occasions, gorillas viewed 6 types of videos (blue screen, humans, an all-male or mixed-sex group engaged in low activity, and an all-male or...

  4. Bobcat ( Lynx rufus ) breeding in captivity: the importance of environmental enrichment

    Contributor(s):: Molla, M. I., Quevedo, M. A., Castro, F.

    Environmental enrichment is an improvement in the biological functioning of nonhuman animals in captivity resulting from modifications to their environment; however, specifying appropriate and practical measures of enrichment is problematic. This study analyzes the behavior of 4 bobcats (Lynx...

  5. Captive coyotes compared to their counterparts in the wild: does environmental enrichment help?

    Contributor(s):: Shivik, J. A., Palmer, G. L., Gese, E. M., Osthaus, B.

    This article attempts to determine the effects of environment (captive or wild) and a simple form of environmental enrichment on the behavior and physiology of a nonhuman animal. Specifically, analyses first compared behavioral budgets and stereotypic behavior of captive coyotes (Canis latrans)...

  6. Caregiver perceptions of what indoor cats do "for fun"

    Contributor(s):: Shyan-Norwalt, M. R.

    In a survey conducted to determine enrichment activities for indoor cats in the caregivers' homes, 304 indoor-cat caregivers answered structured interviews about their cats' use of windows and other "fun activities." The survey asked caregivers about durations of window use, what cats watched...

  7. Combination therapy reduces self-injurious behavior in a chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes troglodytes ): a case report

    Contributor(s):: Bourgeois, S. R., Vazquez, M., Brasky, K.

    Self-injurious behavior (SIB) remains a severe and intractable abnormal behavior for nonhuman primates in diverse settings and is a significant concern for veterinarians and behavioral scientists. To date, no single pharmacological, behavioral, social, or environmental intervention method has...

  8. Control, choice, and assessments of the value of behavioral management to nonhuman primates in captivity

    Contributor(s):: Schapiro, S. J., Lambeth, S. P.

    Many people have devoted considerable effort to enhancing the environments of nonhuman primates in captivity. There is substantial motivation to develop experimental, analytical, and interpretational frameworks to enable objective measurements of the value of environmental enrichment/behavioral...

  9. Effects of single-use and group-use enrichment on stereotypy and intragroup aggressive and affiliative behaviors of a social group of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) at the Singapore Zoo

    Contributor(s):: Sha, J., Han, S., Marlena, D., Kee, J.

    Four food-based enrichment devices were used to test the effects of single-use and group-use enrichment devices on stereotypy, intragroup aggression, and affiliation in a compatible group of 5 squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). All enrichment devices were found to reduce overall stereotypic...

  10. Effects of three food enrichment items on the behavior of black lemurs ( Eulemur macaco macaco ) and ringtail lemurs ( Lemur catta ) at the Henson Robinson Zoo, Springfield, Illinois

    Contributor(s):: Maloney, M. A., Meiers, S. T., White, J., Romano, M. A.

    This study tested 3 food enrichment items mentioned in a laboratory primate newsletter with 6 adult Eulemur macaco and 3 adult Lemur catta to examine whether the items would affect the behavior of the lemurs. The results suggest that Food Enrichment Item 3 (a wire box filled with whole grapes,...

  11. Enhancing nonhuman primate care and welfare through the use of positive reinforcement training

    Contributor(s):: Laule, G., Whittaker, M.

    Nonhuman primates are excellent subjects for the enhancement of care and welfare through training. The broad range of species offers tremendous behavioral diversity, and individual primates show varying abilities to cope with the stressors of captivity, which differ depending on the venue....

  12. Enrichment and primate centers: closing the gap between research and practice

    Contributor(s):: Baker, K.

    A wealth of published research is available to guide environmental enrichment programs for nonhuman primates, but common practice may not consistently correspond to research findings. A 2003 survey to quantify common practice queried individuals overseeing enrichment programs about (a) social,...

  13. Environmental enrichment alters the behavioral profile of ratsnakes ( Elaphe )

    Contributor(s):: Almli, L. M., Burghardt, G. M.

    This study investigated the effects of environmentally enriched and standard laboratory housing conditions on behavioral performance in 16 subadult ratsnakes (Elaphe obsoleta) using a split-clutch design. In a problem-solving task, snakes housed in enriched environments (EC) exhibited shorter...

  14. Environmental enrichment for New World primates: introducing food-irrelevant objects and direct and secondary effects

    Contributor(s):: Renner, M. J., Feiner, A. J., Orr, M. G., Delaney, B. A.

    This study examined methods of environmental enrichment for zoo animals for 4 New World primate species: pygmy and Geoffrey's marmosets (Cebuella pygmaea and Callithrix geoffroyi), red-bellied tamarins (Saguinus labiatus), and golden- headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelus). Subjects...

  15. If you knew what was good for you! The value of environmental enrichments with known welfare benefits is not demonstrated by sows using operant techniques

    Contributor(s):: Elmore, M. R. P., Garner, J. P., Johnson, A. K., Kirkden, R. D., Richert, B. T., Pajor, E. A.

    This study assessed the motivation of gestating sows housed in standard, barren gestation stalls (used for breeding/implantation and/or gestation) for access to environmental enrichment. Enrichment consisted of a cotton rope or rubber mat in comparison to positive (additional food when fed at...

  16. Improving the welfare of captive macaques ( Macaca sp.) through the use of water as enrichment

    Contributor(s):: Robins, J. G., Waitt, C. D.

    This review evaluates the use of water as a tool for enriching the environments of macaques (Macaca sp.) in captivity. Many macaque species are known to swim and forage in water in the wild, and in-situ reports suggest that access to water promotes activity and cultural behavior. Yet, there is a...

  17. Influence of cinnamon and catnip on the stereotypical pacing of oncilla cats ( Leopardus tigrinus ) in captivity

    Contributor(s):: Resende, L. de S., Gomes, K. C. P., Andriolo, A., Genaro, G., Remy, G. L., Ramos Junior, V. de A.

    Nonhuman animals in captivity can experience environmental privation that results in their exhibiting abnormal behaviors. Environmental enrichment techniques can help improve their welfare. This study investigated the behavior of 8 zoo-housed oncilla cats (Leopardus tigrinus) in response to 2...

  18. Introducing a semi-naturalistic exhibit as structural enrichment for two brown bears ( Ursus arctos ). Does this ensure their captive well-being?

    Contributor(s):: Soriano, A. I., Ensenyat, C., Serrat, S., Mate, C.

    In this study we used the daily activity pattern and use of space as indicators of change in the program of structural enrichment, implemented with 2 subjects of the species Ursus arctos in the Barcelona Zoo. We collected 930 sampling points in each study phase for each of the individuals: The...

  19. Life-long well being: applying animal welfare science to nonhuman primates in sanctuaries

    Contributor(s):: Brent, L.

    Nonhuman primates have become common in sanctuaries, and a few such facilities even specialize in their care. Sanctuaries can improve the well being of many unwanted primates, especially in terms of housing and socialization. However, diverse facilities call themselves sanctuaries, and they have...

  20. Lion, ungulate, and visitor reactions to playbacks of lion roars at Zoo Atlanta

    Contributor(s):: Kelling, A. S., Allard, S. M., Kelling, N. J., Sandhaus, E. A., Maple, T. L.

    Felids in captivity are often inactive and elusive in zoos, leading to a frustrating visitor experience. Eight roars were recorded from an adult male lion and played back over speakers as auditory enrichment to benefit the lions while simultaneously enhancing the zoo visitor experience. In...