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  1. The development of on-farm welfare assessment protocols for foxes and mink: the WelFur project

    Contributor(s):: Mononen, J., Moller, S. H., Hansen, S. W., Hovland, A. L., Koistinen, T., Lidfors, L., Malmkvist, J., Vinke, C. M., Ahola, L.

  2. Behavioural and physiological effects of post-weaning handling and access to shelters in farmed blue foxes ( Alopex lagopus )

    Contributor(s):: Pedersen, V., Moeller, N. H., Jeppesen, L. L.

    Ninety-four female blue fox Alopex lagopus cubs were distributed into two groups with either handling or no handling. Handling was performed once a day for 2.5 min between 7 and 10 weeks of age, while the control group received no extra human contact. As handling completed at 10 weeks of age,...

  3. Bones as enrichment for farmed blue foxes ( Vulpes lagopus ): interaction with the bones and preference for a cage with the bones

    Contributor(s):: Koistinen, T., Turunen, A., Kiviniemi, V., Ahola, L., Mononen, J.

    Animal welfare regulations (e.g. Recommendations of European Convention) state that farmed foxes need to be provided with an activity object, though the material or shape of the object is not specified. We aimed to evaluate the properties of bones as an activity object for farmed blue foxes...

  4. Effects of environmental stressors on deep body temperature and activity levels in silver fox vixens ( Vulpes vulpes )

    Contributor(s):: Bakken, M., Moe, R. O., Smith, A. J., Selle, G. M. E.

    The present study was performed to investigate the effects of 14 different environmental stimuli on stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH) and levels of locomotor activity in 6 (3 infanticidal (killed their offspring during the previous year), 3 non-infanticidal) 2.5-year-old silver fox vixens. The...

  5. Preference for various nest box designs in farmed silver foxes ( Vulpes vulpes ) and blue foxes ( Alopex lagopus )

    Contributor(s):: Jeppesen, L. L., Pedersen, V., Heller, K. E.

    Nest box choice experiments were carried out outside the breeding season on adult silver (n=50) and blue fox (n=50) vixens with no previous permanent nest box experience. Nest boxes were varied in height of placement, number of rooms, presence of entrance room or platform and light conditions....

  6. Assessing the human-animal relationship in farmed species: a critical review

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Waiblinger, S., Boivin, X., Pedersen, V., Tosi, M. V., Janczak, A. M., Visser, E. K., Jones, R. B.

    The present paper focuses on six main issues. First, we briefly explain why an increased understanding of the human-animal relationship (HAR) is an essential component of any strategy intended to improve the welfare of farmed animals and their stockpersons. Second, we list the main internal and...

  7. A comparison of the use of resting platforms and nest boxes in growing farmed silver foxes ( Vulpes vulpes )

    | Contributor(s):: Mononen, J., Korhonen, H., Harri, M., Kasanen, S.

    The use of the interior and roof of a nest box and the use of various types of resting platform were studied in 50 juvenile silver foxes of both sexes housed singly in traditional fox cages (length, 115 cm; width, 105 cm; height, 70 cm). The experiment was carried out from early July to the end...

  8. A note on reward-related behaviour and emotional expressions in farmed silver foxes ( Vulpes vulpes ) - basis for a novel tool to study animal welfare

    | Contributor(s):: Moe, R. O., Bakken, M., Kittilsen, S., Kingsley-Smith, H., Spruijt, B. M.

    The present study aimed to investigate the profile and quantitative aspects of reward-related behaviour and emotional expressions during anticipation of positive (predictable or various unpredictable) or negative (predictable) rewards in a Pavlovian trace conditioning paradigm in farmed silver...

  9. Long-term effects of different handling procedures on behavioural, physiological, and production-related parameters in silver foxes

    | Contributor(s):: Pedersen, V.

    Fifty-one silver fox vixens, were subjected to 3 different handling treatments as cubs (no-handling, gentle or forced handling). As juveniles, the animals were exposed to 3 different behavioural tests at 18, 22, 28 and 32 weeks of age. Both forcibly and gently handled animals showed reduced fear...

  10. The use of resting platforms by young silver foxes ( Vulpes vulpes )

    | Contributor(s):: Mononen, J., Harri, M., Rouvinen, K., Niemela, P.

    According to the current European recommendation for animal protection regulations for fur animals, farmed foxes should have a resting platform in their cages. Therefore, the total time of use and factors affecting the use of resting platforms by 20 young silver foxes were studied on an...

  11. Use of nest boxes by young farmed silver foxes ( Vulpes vulpes ) in autumn

    | Contributor(s):: Mononen, J., Harri, M., Rekila, T., Korhonen, H., Niemela, P.

    A standard wire-mesh cage (length 112 cm x width 107 cm x height 70 cm) with a wooden nest box was provided to juvenile silver foxes. The extent to which the nest boxes (dimensions of the main chamber 40 cm x 40 cmx 40 cm; or diameter 38 cm, height 32 cm) were used by 36 foxes kept in pairs and 8...

  12. A study of the use of resting platforms by farm bred blue foxes

    | Contributor(s):: Harri, M., Mononen, J., Korhonen, H., Haapanen, K.

  13. Comparison of daytime use between platform types, materials, ceilings and experiences in juvenile blue foxes ( Alopex lagopus )

    | Contributor(s):: Korhonen, H., Ketoja, E., Niemela, P.

    264 juvenile blue foxes were housed in cages with side-U platforms or corner flat platforms made from wood or net with ceilings 23 or 30 cm above. The foxes were the offspring of females housed in cages without or with platforms. Platform type significantly affected the amount of time the foxes...

  14. Seasonal changes in platform use by farmed blue foxes ( Alopex lagopus )

    | Contributor(s):: Korhonen, H., Niemela, P., Tuuri, H.

    Seasonal changes in platform use were investigated in farm-raised blue foxes (Alopex lagopus) by daytime scan sampling observations and 24-h video recordings. Seasonal comparisons were made in both sexes, but other experimental treatments were applied mainly to females. Platform use was minimal...

  15. The nature and strength of social motivations in young farmed silver fox vixens ( Vulpes vulpes )

    | Contributor(s):: Hovland, A. L., Mason, G. J., Kirkden, R. D., Bakken, M.

    To investigate the strength of social motivation and the motives underlying social contact in farmed silver foxes (Vulpes vulpes), we housed six young vixens continuously in a closed economy operant apparatus and measured their 'maximum price paid' when required to perform a task to obtain...

  16. Learned food aversion with and without an odour cue for protecting untreated baits from wild mammal foraging. (Special Issue: Conservation, enrichment and animal behavior.)

    | Contributor(s):: Baker, S. E., Johnson, P. J., Slater, D., Watkins, R. W., Macdonald, D. W.

    Lethal methods of controlling wildlife foraging damage may present difficulties regarding conservation, ethics, welfare, and efficacy, providing an imperative to develop non-lethal alternatives. Learned food aversions offer a benign, targeted alternative to culling. However, food aversions are...

  17. Anxiolytic drugs inhibit hyperthermia induced by handling in farmed silver foxes ( Vulpes vulpes )

    | Contributor(s):: Moe, R. O., Bakken, M.

    Eighteen silver fox vixens were divided into 3 equal groups and injected i.m with either diazepam (5 mg/kg) or buspirone (10 mg/kg), or sterile saline (control). Foxes were handled before and at 90 min after injection. Rectal temperature (Trec) was measured as an indicator of stress-induced...

  18. Behaviour of silver foxes in traditional breeding boxes and in boxes with an entrance tunnel

    | Contributor(s):: Braastad, B. O.

    The periparturient behaviour of silver-fox females inside traditional and modified breeding boxes was recorded on video tape from 24 h before to 72 h after parturition for 3 diurnal periods. 20 litters had the traditional simple breeding box, 14 litters had a box with a narrow entrance tunnel....

  19. Behavioural and physiological differences between silver foxes selected and not selected for domestic behaviour

    | Contributor(s):: Harri, M., Mononen, J., Ahola, L., Plyusnina, I., Rekila, T.

    The degree of domestication of an animal is difficult to estimate because the animal's phenotype depends not only on its genetic make-up but also on its experiences during ontogeny. In addition, comparisons between wild and domestic animals suffer from the lack of a proper reference population....

  20. Enrichment value of wooden blocks for farmed blue foxes ( Alopex lagopus )

    | Contributor(s):: Korhonen, H., Niemela, P.

    Wooden blocks (30x7 cm) were employed to clarify how such inanimate objects might serve to enrich the barren wire-mesh cages. In experiment 1, behavioural reactions of 8 male blue foxes to wooden blocks were videotaped between January and May. In experiment 2, 16 male blue foxes were housed...