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  1. Blue foxes' ( Vulpes lagopus) motivation to gain access and interact with various resources

    Contributor(s):: Koistinen, T., Korhonen, H. T., Hamalainen, E., Mononen, J.

    We analysed the willingness of blue foxes ( Vulpes lagopus) to work for and utilise five resources: a platform, wooden block, sand floor, nest box and empty space. Ten juvenile blue fox males were housed singly in apparatus consisting of three cages connected with one-way doors through the walls...

  2. Human perceptions of coat color as an indicator of domestic cat personality

    | Contributor(s):: Delgado, M. M., Munera, J. D., Reevy, G. M.

    Associations between mammalian coat color and behavior have been investigated in a number of species, most notably the study of silver foxes by the Institute of Cytology and Genetics at the Russian Academy of Sciences. However, the few studies conducted regarding a potential relation between...

  3. The development of on-farm welfare assessment protocols for foxes and mink: the WelFur project

    | Contributor(s):: Mononen, J., Moller, S. H., Hansen, S. W., Hovland, A. L., Koistinen, T., Lidfors, L., Malmkvist, J., Vinke, C. M., Ahola, L.

  4. Behavioural and physiological effects of post-weaning handling and access to shelters in farmed blue foxes ( Alopex lagopus )

    | Contributor(s):: Pedersen, V., Moeller, N. H., Jeppesen, L. L.

    Ninety-four female blue fox Alopex lagopus cubs were distributed into two groups with either handling or no handling. Handling was performed once a day for 2.5 min between 7 and 10 weeks of age, while the control group received no extra human contact. As handling completed at 10 weeks of age,...

  5. Choices of farm foxes for raised wire mesh cage and ground pen

    | Contributor(s):: Korhonen, H., Niemela, P.

    Eight adult male silver foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and 10 adult and 10 juvenile blue foxes (Alopex lagopus) were housed in a combined cage-pen housing. A raised wire mesh cage (110 x 107 x 60 cm) was connected via tunnel with a ground level pen with solid floor (200 x 400 x 150 cm). Animal behaviour...

  6. Long-term effects of tryptophan on behavioural response and growing-furring performance in silver fox ( Vulpes vulpes )

    | Contributor(s):: Rouvinen, K., Archbold, S., Laffin, S., Harri, M.

    The effects of dietary tryptophan (TRP) supplementation on behavioural response, body weight, feed intake and winter fur development were assessed in silver fox pups from 28 July until 5 December 1997. Ten males and 10 females received a commercial fox ration (control) and 10 males and 10 females...

  7. Relative value of a nest box, sand floor and extra space during the breeding season in adult blue fox males

    | Contributor(s):: Koistinen, T., Jauhiainen, L., Korhonen, H. T.

    We measured how much adult blue fox males value access to a nest box and sand floor enrichments while a platform and activity object are available simultaneously. Ten blue fox males were solitary housed in test apparatuses with permanent access to a platform and wooden block (activity object)...

  8. Selection for more confident foxes in Finland and Norway: heritability and selection response for confident behaviour in blue foxes ( Alopex lagopus )

    | Contributor(s):: Kenttamies, H., Nordrum, N. V., Brenoe, U. T., Smeds, K., Johannessen, K. R., Bakken, M.

    As a part of a Nordic project, 'Selection for more confident foxes', selection experiments with blue foxes lasting 4 years (1995-98) were arranged in Finland and Norway. In Finland, the study was carried out on a private farm with closed selection and production lines. In Norway, the experiment...

  9. Group housing of adult silver fox ( Vulpes vulpes ) vixens during autumn and its consequences for body weight, injuries and later reproduction: a field study

    | Contributor(s):: Hovland, A. L., Bakken, M.

    Usually, farmed silver foxes are housed singly throughout adulthood. Due to the flexible social nature of wild foxes social grouping may act as an alternative housing procedure for adult vixens. However, sociality may involve increased levels of aggression during competition for e.g. dominance...

  10. Preference for various nest box designs in farmed silver foxes ( Vulpes vulpes ) and blue foxes ( Alopex lagopus )

    | Contributor(s):: Jeppesen, L. L., Pedersen, V., Heller, K. E.

    Nest box choice experiments were carried out outside the breeding season on adult silver (n=50) and blue fox (n=50) vixens with no previous permanent nest box experience. Nest boxes were varied in height of placement, number of rooms, presence of entrance room or platform and light conditions....

  11. Social preferences in farmed silver fox females ( Vulpes vulpes ): does it change with age?

    | Contributor(s):: Akre, A. K., Bakken, M., Hovland, A. L.

    Determining foxes' social preference, and how this influences their social behaviour towards different conspecifics at different ages may give us a better understanding of how to prevent foxes from exposure of possible social stressors when housed in groups. Here, we investigated the effect of...

  12. A note on the effects of an unobstructed view on cage choices in farmed foxes

    | Contributor(s):: Mononen, J., Harri, M., Sepponen, J., Ahola, L.

    Eight farmed adult female silver foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and 8 blue foxes (Alopex lagopus) were given the option of a cage with an open view and a cage with a partly obstructed view in a 14-day choice test. Silver foxes spent 61 +or- 16% and blue foxes 68 +or- 18% of their daily time in the cage...

  13. An analysis of fear and aggression during early development of behaviour in silver foxes ( Vulpes vulpes )

    | Contributor(s):: Plyusnina, I. Z., Oskina, I. N., Trut, L. N.

  14. Effects of early handling on later behaviour and stress responses in the silver fox ( Vulpes vulpes )

    | Contributor(s):: Pedersen, V., Jeppesen, L. L.

    Experimental and control groups of fox cubs were formed of 16 males and 16 females born to 7 vixens, and 23 males and 23 females born to 13 other vixens, respectively. From 2 to 8 weeks old the experimental cubs only had routine close physical and verbal contact with humans. From 12 to 20 weeks...

  15. Long-term effects of different handling procedures on behavioural, physiological, and production-related parameters in silver foxes

    | Contributor(s):: Pedersen, V.

    Fifty-one silver fox vixens, were subjected to 3 different handling treatments as cubs (no-handling, gentle or forced handling). As juveniles, the animals were exposed to 3 different behavioural tests at 18, 22, 28 and 32 weeks of age. Both forcibly and gently handled animals showed reduced fear...

  16. Periparturient behaviour in farmed blue foxes ( Alopex lagopus )

    | Contributor(s):: Pyykonen, T., Mononen, J., Ahola, L., Rekila, T.

    Recently, there has been criticism of the housing conditions available for farmed foxes. It is claimed that the present farm conditions are not appropriate for foxes and they lead to poor reproduction and abnormal behaviour such as maternal infanticide. Earlier studies have indicated that farmed...

  17. The use of resting platforms by young silver foxes ( Vulpes vulpes )

    | Contributor(s):: Mononen, J., Harri, M., Rouvinen, K., Niemela, P.

    According to the current European recommendation for animal protection regulations for fur animals, farmed foxes should have a resting platform in their cages. Therefore, the total time of use and factors affecting the use of resting platforms by 20 young silver foxes were studied on an...

  18. Use of nest boxes by young farmed silver foxes ( Vulpes vulpes ) in autumn

    | Contributor(s):: Mononen, J., Harri, M., Rekila, T., Korhonen, H., Niemela, P.

    A standard wire-mesh cage (length 112 cm x width 107 cm x height 70 cm) with a wooden nest box was provided to juvenile silver foxes. The extent to which the nest boxes (dimensions of the main chamber 40 cm x 40 cmx 40 cm; or diameter 38 cm, height 32 cm) were used by 36 foxes kept in pairs and 8...

  19. A study of the use of resting platforms by farm bred blue foxes

    | Contributor(s):: Harri, M., Mononen, J., Korhonen, H., Haapanen, K.

  20. Blue foxes' motivation to gain access to solid floors and the effect of the floor material on their behaviour

    | Contributor(s):: Koistinen, T., Mononen, J.

    Farmed blue foxes are willing to work to gain access to a sand floor from a wire mesh floor. It is not clear whether the foxes work for the sand floor because of its solidity or because it enables them to perform certain behaviours, e.g. exploration and digging. Here, we measured blue foxes'...