Effects of group size on the behaviour, heart rate, immunity, and growth of Holstein dairy calves
Contributor(s):: Lv, Jing, Zhao, Xun-Wu, Su, Hang, Wang, Zhi-Peng, Wang, Chao, Li, Jian-Hong, Li, Xiang, Zhang, Run-Xiang, Bao, Jun
A meta-analysis on the effects of the housing environment on the behaviour, mortality, and performance of growing rabbits
Contributor(s):: Sommerville, R., Ruiz, R., Averos, X.
Examination of enrichment using space and food for African elephants (Loxodonta africana) at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park
Contributor(s):: Hacker, C. E., Miller, L. J., Schulte, B. A.
Case control study on environmental, nutritional and management-based risk factors for tail-biting in long-tailed pigs
Contributor(s):: Kallio, P. A., Janczak, A. M., Valros, A. E., Edwards, S. A., Heinonen, M.
Handling and moving cull sows upon arrival at the slaughterhouse—Effects of small versus larger groups of sows
Contributor(s):: Herskin, Mette S., Christensen, Sanne W., Rousing, Tine
In modern pig production up to 50 % of the sows are slaughtered each year. So far, only few studies have focused on how sows are handled and moved within slaughterhouses. We examined effects of group size on the behaviour of sows and the ease of moving them from the entrance of a slaughterhouse...
Choice of perch characteristics by laying hens in cages with different group size and perching behaviours
Contributor(s):: Chen, Dong-hua, Bao, Jun, Meng, Fan-yu, Wei, Chun-bo
Provision of perches in cages could improve behaviour and physical conditions of laying hens. This study was conducted to investigate the choice of perch characteristics (shape, width, material and height) by caged hens under different group size, and to understand the choice by the perching...
Dairy cow behavior and welfare implications of time waiting before entry into the milking parlor
Contributor(s):: Dijkstra, C., Veermae, I., Praks, J., Poikalainen, V., Arney, D. R.
The objective of this study was to investigate dairy cows' time spent in the possibly stressful waiting area (WA) of the milking parlor (MP) and their behavioral patterns while there and thereby investigate comparative effects on their welfare. The experiments were carried out in 3 loose-housing...
Rat's demand for group size
Contributor(s):: Patterson-Kane, E. P., Hunt, M., Harper, D.
Social isolation compromises the welfare of rats. However, it is not clear how many rats should be housed together under laboratory conditions. Pair housing, sometimes recommended over group housing, may help avoid aggression and disease transmission. Female rats, however, showed the highest...
Keeping horses in groups: a review
Contributor(s):: Hartmann, E., Sondergaard, E., Keeling, L. J.
The effect of housing system on the behaviour and growth parameters of fattening rabbits
Contributor(s):: Postollec, G., Boilletot, E., Maurice, R., Michel, V.
Altered aggression in different sized groups of crayfish supports a dynamic social behaviour model
Contributor(s):: Patullo, B. W., Baird, H. P., Macmillan, D. L.
Living in groups with conspecifics can increase an animal's fitness in the wild. A social environment may also be imposed by commercial farming industries. One important measure of competition and group dynamics is the level of aggressive interaction. This can also influence the level of damage...
Assessment of sub-grouping behaviour in pigs housed at different group sizes
Contributor(s):: Turner, S. P., Horgan, G. W., Edwards, S. A.
The group size within which a dominance hierarchy can function without modification is finite. Sub-grouping behaviour may fragment a large group into smaller units in which a dominance hierarchy may be preserved. This could be achieved by spatial localization, as indicated by the existence of...
Behavioural, endocrine and immune consequences of mixing in weaned piglets
Contributor(s):: Merlot, E., Meunier-Salaun, M. C., Prunier, A.
Mixing piglets at weaning increases plasma cortisol concentrations and agonistic behaviour. In contrast to what is observed in older pigs, studies failed to show any effect of social environment on other behavioural variables or on immune function. The lack of effect of mixing may not reflect an...
Domestic pigs alter their social strategy in response to social group size
Contributor(s):: Samarakone, T. S., Gonyou, H. W.
In a series of studies, we investigated the concept that domesticated pigs may adopt cost efficient social strategies, in which individuals become less aggressive due to a higher number of potential competitors, in large social groups. Six blocks, each comprising four pens of 18 pigs (small...
Effect of social group size on aggressive behaviour between unacquainted domestic pigs
Domestic pigs (Sus scrofa) in small groups establish a dominance hierarchy using overt aggression and individual recognition. The impact of a large group size on group social organization and aggression is poorly understood. The severity of aggression on mixing unacquainted pigs derived from...
Effects of gender and group size on the time-activity budgets of adult breeding ostriches ( Struthio camelus ) in a farming environment
Contributor(s):: McKeegan, D. E. F., Deeming, D. C.
Twenty-six adult ostriches in breeding condition, maintained outdoors, were studied to determine their diurnal time-activity budget in the UK during the months of July and August. Males and females from pairs (1 male, 1 female), trios (1 male, 2 females), a small group (group 1: 3 males 8...
Familiarity and group size affect emotional stress in Japanese Black heifers
Contributor(s):: Takeda, K., Sato, S., Sugawara, K.
We compared behavioural and cardiac responses to emotional stresses between familiar and unfamiliar heifers in groups of two or five. Fourteen Japanese Black heifers were divided into two experimental groups of two individuals (F2) and two groups of five individuals (F5) that were familiar with...
Feeding, resting and social behaviour in ewes housed in two different group sizes
Contributor(s):: Jorgensen, G. H. M., Andersen, I. L., Berg, S., Boe, K. E.
The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effects of increased group size on eating- and resting behaviour, aggression and feed intake in housed ewes. During an initial period of 14 days 36 adult (2-6 years old) ewes of the domestic Norwegian Dala breed were divided into four groups of 9....
Group size and perching behaviour in young domestic fowl
Contributor(s):: Newberry, R. C., Estevez, I., Keeling, L. J.
To test the hypothesis that young domestic fowl perform less perch-related antipredator behaviour with increasing group size, White Leghorn pullets were reared in 4 replicate groups of 15, 30, 60 and 120 at a constant density of 5 birds/m2. Each pen contained perches 20, 40 and 60 cm above the...
Group sizes and resting locations of free range pigs when grazing in a natural environment
Contributor(s):: Rodriguez-Estevez, V., Sanchez-Rodriguez, M., Gomez-Castro, A. G., Edwards, S. A.
A herd of 86 Iberian pigs aged 13+or-0.5 months and with an average live weight of 110+or-1.3 kg at the start of the study was followed to monitor their social organisation (spontaneous group size: GS) and resting preferences when free ranging on natural pastures in a dehesa of evergreen oaks...