Reported Behavioural Differences between Geldings and Mares Challenge Sex-Driven Stereotypes in Ridden Equine Behaviour
| Contributor(s):: Anna Aune, Kate Fenner, Bethany Wilson, Elissa Cameron, Andrew McLean, Paul McGreevy
Horse trainers and riders may have preconceived ideas of horse temperament based solely on the sex of the horse. A study (n = 1233) of horse enthusiasts (75% of whom had more than 8 years of riding experience) revealed that riders prefer geldings over mares and stallions. While these data may...
Dog and cat as a mirror of the human soul? Qualitative evaluation of a pre-post interventionHund und Katze als Spiegel der menschlichen Seele? - Eine Prei-Post-Lnterventionsstudie mit qualitativer Evaluation
| Contributor(s):: Hopf, J., Edelhauser, F., Neumann, M.
Effects of Transport Conditions on Behavioural and Physiological Responses of Horses
| Contributor(s):: Barbara Padalino, Sharanne L Raidal
The regulations for minimal space and direction of travel for land transport in horses vary worldwide and there is currently no definitive guidance to promote equine health and welfare. This study evaluated the effects of bay size and direction of travel (forwards/backwards) in horses by...
An observational evaluation of stress in horses during therapeutic riding sessions
| Contributor(s):: McDuffee, L., Carr, L., Montelpare, W.
Therapeutic riding (TR) provides benefits to participants with cognitive and physical disabilities. Horses participating in TR programs are typically selected because of their calm temperament and may not show obvious signs of stress. However, the welfare of horses in TR programs is an important...
Androstenone induces horses to be more compliant with human-horse interactions
| Contributor(s):: Choi, Yeonju, Yoon, MinJung
Olfactory signals play an essential role in communication in animals. Pheromones are volatile or nonvolatile chemicals that trigger social responses among animals. Therefore, pheromone treatment could, in theory, be used to modify horse behavior to improve human-horse relationships. Androstenone...
Improving the Recognition of Equine Affective States
| Contributor(s):: Catherine Bell, Suzanne Rogers, Julie Taylor, Debbie Busby
A key welfare problem for horses is that people commonly fail to recognise, and consequently neglect to resolve, equine behavioural signs of distress, worsening the welfare of the horse and potentially putting the safety of the handler at risk as a result. Members of equestrian Facebook groups...
Pilot study of the influence of equine assisted therapy on physiological and behavioral parameters related to welfare of horses and patients
| Contributor(s):: Dolores Ayala, M., Carrillo, A., Iniesta, P., Ferrer, P.
Different welfare indicators were studied in three patients with psychomotor alterations and in two horses throughout 9-10 equine assisted therapy sessions in each patient. In horses, heart and respiratory rates, blood pressure, temperature and behavioral signs were studied. In patients, heart...
Conceptualization of psychotherapy incorporating equine interactions in the United States
| Contributor(s):: Fry, N. E.
While several systematic and mapping reviews have been published in the last decade on the psychological effects of interacting with horses in therapy services, little has been written about how licensed mental health therapists in the United States should best understand, describe, and...
The role of hormones during equine-assisted activity and therapy: a literature review
| Contributor(s):: Ferlazzo, A., Fazio, E., Cravana, C., Medica, P.
Serum Cortisol Concentrations and Behavior Assessment as Tools for Evaluating Stress in Horses Used in Therapeutic or University Riding Programs
| Contributor(s):: Shikun Chen
Stress is known to have a negative impact on the health and well-being of animals. Physiological and behavioral changes offer objective and easy to use methods of evaluating stress in horses. However, there are limited studies showing a relationship between changes in stress-related behavior...
Perceptions and attitudes towards mules in a group of soldiers
| Contributor(s):: Lagos, J., Rojas, M., Rodrigues, J. B., Tadich, T.
Miniature horse training (Equus caballus) for use in equine assisted therapy, according to equine learning theory
| Contributor(s):: Rocha Medeiros, B. da, Silva, M. M. da, Zanette, P. R. K., Claus, M. P., Cardoso, J.
Benefits of Animal Exposure on Veterinary Students' Understanding of Equine Behaviour and Self-Assessed Equine Handling Skills
| Contributor(s):: Lauréline Guinnefollau, Erica K. Gee, Charlotte F. Bolwell, Elizabeth J. Norman, Chris W. Rogers
Horses are one of the most dangerous animals veterinarians have to work with. For many veterinary students, their first exposure to horses occurs during practical classes. To evaluate the level of knowledge students have of equine behaviour and their equine handling competency when entering...
Eye Blink Rates and Eyelid Twitches as a Non-Invasive Measure of Stress in the Domestic Horse
| Contributor(s):: Katrina Merkies, Chloe Ready, Leanne Farkas, Abigail Hodder
Physiological changes provide indices of stress responses, however, behavioural measures may be easier to determine. Spontaneous eye blink rate has potential as a non-invasive indicator of stress. Eyelid movements, along with heart rate (HR) and behaviour, from 33 horses were evaluated over...
Equine Activities Influence Horses' Responses to Different Stimuli: Could This Have an Impact on Equine Welfare?
| Contributor(s):: Tiago Mendonça, Cécile Bienboire-Frosini, Izabela Kowalczyk, Julien Leclercq, Sana Arroub, Patrick Pageat
The learning and cognitive challenges that horses may face differ according to the activities in which they are involved. The aim of this investigation was to study the influence of equine activities on the behavioral responses and autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity of adult horses....
Voluntary Rein Tension in Horses When Moving Unridden in a Dressage Frame Compared with Ridden Tests of the Same Horses—A Pilot Study
| Contributor(s):: Lara Piccolo, Kathrin Kienapfel
Too much rein tension while riding may compromise the welfare of the horse. But who generates the tension on the reins—the horse or the rider? The primary aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the maximum rein tension that horses voluntarily maintain without a rider compared to rein...
Evaluating stress in riding horses: part one - behavior assessment and serum cortisol
| Contributor(s):: Hovey, M. R., Davis, A., Chen, S., Godwin, P., Porr, C. A. S.
Stress can impact the health and well-being of animals negatively. Behavioral and physiological changes, particularly serum cortisol, offer objective and easy-to-use methods of evaluating stress in horses. However, limited studies support a positive relationship between changes in...
Effects of Rider Experience Level on Horse Kinematics and Behavior
| Contributor(s):: Rebekah Strunk
Large riding lesson programs are an essential part of the horse industry. To meet demand and remain profitable, lesson barns sometimes require horses to work multiple times a day with different rider levels. There is little guidance as to the behavioral and physical effects of such protocols,...
A welfare assessment scoring system for working equids—A method for identifying at risk populations and for monitoring progress of welfare enhancement strategies (trialed in Egypt)
| Contributor(s):: Ali, Ahmed B. A., El Sayed, Mohammed A., Matoock, Mohamed Y., Fouad, Manal A., Heleski, Camie R.
There are an estimated 112 million horses, donkeys and mules (i.e., working equids) in developing regions of the world. Though their roles are often fundamental to the well-being of the families they work for, their welfare is often severely compromised due to the limited resources and/or...
Plains zebra (Equus quagga) behaviour in a restored population reveals seasonal resource limitations
| Contributor(s):: de Vos, Charli, Leslie, Alison J., Ransom, Jason I.
A once abundant species, plains zebra (Equus quagga), is declining across much of sub-Saharan Africa. Reintroduction efforts at Majete Wildlife Reserve, Malawi, have resulted in rapid population increases, but little is known about how such populations resemble natural populations socially or...