We must ban household pets for children at risk for atopy: pro
Contributor(s):: Brouard, J., Pellerin, L.
A comparison of cell-mediated immune responses in rhesus macaques housed singly, in pairs, or in groups
Contributor(s):: Schapiro, S. J., Nehete, P. N., Perlman, J. E., Sastry, K. J.
A variety of psychosocial factors have been shown to influence immunological responses in laboratory primates. The present investigation examined the effects of social housing condition on cell-mediated immune responses, comparing rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in three housing conditions...
Behavioural, endocrine and immune consequences of mixing in weaned piglets
Contributor(s):: Merlot, E., Meunier-Salaun, M. C., Prunier, A.
Mixing piglets at weaning increases plasma cortisol concentrations and agonistic behaviour. In contrast to what is observed in older pigs, studies failed to show any effect of social environment on other behavioural variables or on immune function. The lack of effect of mixing may not reflect an...
Effect of gradual transition from maternal to reconstituted milk on behavioural, endocrine and immune responses of lambs
Contributor(s):: Sevi, A., Napolitano, F., Casamassima, D., Annicchiarico, G., Quarantelli, T., Paola, R. de
18-24 h after parturition, 20 Comisana lambs were separated from their dams and were subsequently offered a commercial milk substitute (Sub) or were subjected to a gradual transition from maternal to reconstituted milk over 10 days (Mix). Lambs had free access to milk for 3 h a day. A further 10...
The effect of a gradual separation from the mother on later behavioral, immune and endocrine alterations in artificially reared lambs
Contributor(s):: Sevi, A., Caroprese, M., Annicchiarico, G., Albenzio, M., Taibi, L., Muscio, A.
The aim of the experiment was to compare the welfare and weight gains of artificially reared lambs when gradually separated from their mothers or separated from them early and immediately or gradually moved from maternal to reconstituted milk. Forty Comisana lambs were assigned to a control...
Neonatal handling of Amazon parrots alters the stress response and immune function
Contributor(s):: Collette, J. C., Millam, J. R., Klasing, K. C., Wakenell, P. S.
The influence of neonatal handling on behaviour and immune function was assessed in Orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica). Chicks (n=11) were gently handled daily from 25 days of age until 38 days post-fledging, while control chicks (n=9) were not handled. At 10 days post-fledging...
The behavioural, physiological and immunological responses of lambs from two rearing systems and two genotypes to exposure to humans
Contributor(s):: Goddard, P. J., Fawcett, A. R., Macdonald, A. J., Reid, H. W.
96 lambs of 2 genotypes (Scottish Blackface: BF and Texel x (Blue-faced Leicester x Scottish Blackface): T) were studied. From birth to weaning 1 of 2 management regimes was applied: extensive (E), whereby animals were handled as little as possible or semi-intensive (I), in which lambs...
Main causes of poor welfare in intensively reared dairy cows. (Special Issue: Criteria and methods for the assessment of animal welfare.)
Contributor(s):: Abeni, F., Bertoni, G.
The aim of this review is to summarise the main causes of poor welfare in intensively reared dairy cows. Intensive farming systems are considered, both from a structural and a managerial point of view, for their constraints that may limit animal welfare: possible physical activity; acceptable...
An examination of behavioral, immunological and productive traits in four management systems for sows and piglets
Contributor(s):: McGlone, J. J., Blecha, F.
Forty-one sows and litters were utilized in a multi-disciplinary evaluation of four common commercial housing systems for sows and piglets: (1) a standard crate (SC); (2) a modified or turnaround crate (TC); (3) a pen with an indoor and outdoor area (OP); (4) a straw-bedded hut on a lot (HL). HL...
Effect of group composition and pen size on behaviour, productivity and immune response of growing pigs
Contributor(s):: Moore, A. S., Gonyou, H. W., Stookey, J. M., McLaren, D. G.
Levels of aggression, injuries, activity, performance and immune response were determined in 288 growing pigs in a 2 x 2 factorial experiment; the factors being group composition and pen size. Pigs were classified as small (SM) when allotted and then reclassified as medium (MED), large (LG) and...
Evaluation of crates and girth tethers for sows: reproductive performance, immunity, behavior and ergonomic measures
Contributor(s):: McGlone, J. J., Salak-Johnson, J. L., Nicolson, R. I., Hicks, T.
An evaluation was made for two common sow housing systems: the girth tether and crate. Littermate Yorkshire X Landrace gilts were randomly assigned to either the crate or girth tether system and they remained in that treatment for 2 consecutive pregnancies and lactations. A total of 171 matings...
Influence of artificial rearing on behavioral and immune response of lambs
Contributor(s):: Napolitano, F., Marino, V., Rosa, G. de, Capparelli, R., Bordi, A.
Comisana lambs were separated from their mothers at 2, 15 or 28 days of age and reared artificially. On the day of separation, lambs were given an i.m. injection of keyhole limpet haemocyanin in complete Freunds' adjuvant (250 micro g). Antibody titres and surface leukocyte antigens were...
Surgical castration of pigs affects the behavioural response to a low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge after weaning
Contributor(s):: Moya, S. L., Boyle, L. A., Lynch, P. B., Arkins, S.
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of an acute stressor in the early postnatal life of pigs, surgical castration, on post-weaning behaviour, and on the behavioural, endocrine and immune responses elicited by a low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge after weaning....
Welfare implications of artificial rearing and early weaning in sheep. (Special Issue: Early Weaning.)
Contributor(s):: Napolitano, F., Rosa, G. de, Sevi, A.
Soon after parturition a lasting and mutual ewe-lamb bond is established. However, in an increasing number of intensive sheep farms, lambs are separated from the dam at an early age. When artificial rearing is applied lambs are often kept with mothers for 2 days to allow the ingestion of maternal...
Effects of repeated changes in group composition on immune response, behaviour, adrenal activity and liveweight gain in farmed red deer yearlings
Contributor(s):: Hanlon, A. J., Rhind, S. M., Reid, H. W., Burrells, C., Lawrence, A. B.
The validity of antibody and lymphocyte response as measures of social stress in farmed red deer hinds was assessed by comparison with other indices of stress (behaviour, adrenal capacity and liveweight gain). 10 "wild" red deer (mixed, M), born to wild hinds after capture, were each housed in 10...
Relationship between immune response, liveweight gain, behaviour and adrenal function in red deer ( Cervus elaphus ) calves derived from wild and farmed stock, maintained at two housing densities
Contributor(s):: Hanlon, A. J., Rhind, S. M., Reid, H. W., Burrells, C., Lawrence, A. B., Milne, J. A., McMillen, S. R.
Immune response and other potential measures of stress were assessed in 40 weaned red deer calves in a 2 x 2 factorial experiment. Replicate groups of five calves (aged about 3 months) born to dams from two sources (wild, (W) or farmed, (F)) were housed at weaning at one of two stocking densities...
Social behaviour and immunologival correlates in group-housed laboratory does
Contributor(s):: Held, S. D. E., Turner, R. J., Wootton, R. J.
Behaviour, stress and health: where do we stand?
Contributor(s):: Dantzer, R.
Influence of gentling on lamb immune response and human-lamb interactions
Contributor(s):: Caroprese, M., Napolitano, F., Albenzio, M., Annicchiarico, G., Musto, M., Sevi, A.
A 7-week trial was performed to assess the effects of gently handling newborn lambs on their behavioural, immune and endocrine responses, and on their growth rate when mothered or artificially reared. Sixty-four lambs were involved in the study, which were divided in four groups of 16. The...
Assessment of welfare from physiological and behavioural responses of New Zealand dairy cows exposed to cold and wet conditions
Contributor(s):: Webster, J. R., Stewart, M., Rogers, A. R., Verkerk, G. A.
There is a need to assess the welfare of dairy cows that live outdoors under cold and wet conditions. This study combined a number of techniques to measure stress and make an assessment of welfare in this situation. Two groups often non-pregnant, non-lactating Holstein Friesian cows were exposed...