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  1. Rabies in Nonhuman Primates and Potential for Transmission to Humans: A Literature Review and Examination of Selected French National Data

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Philippe Gautret, Jesse Blanton, Laurent Dacheux, Florence Ribadeau-Dumas, Philippe Brouqui, Philippe Parola, Douglas H. Esposito, Hervé Bourhy

    Background: The nonhuman primate (NHP)-related injuries in rabies-enzootic countries is a public health problem of increasing importance. The aims of this work are to collect data concerning rabies transmission from NHPs to humans; to collate medical practices regarding rabies postexposure...

  2. Menace and Management: Power in the Human-Monkey Social Worlds of Delhi and Shimla

    | Contributor(s):: Daniel Allen Solomon

    This dissertation is based on ethnographic and textual research among the monkeys and humans of two Indian metropolises, mostly between 2006-2010. The monkeys are rhesus macaques, who have lived alongside humans in South Asia for thousands of years, make their livings in apparently anthropogenic...

  3. Influência da visitação no comportamento de macacos-prego (Cebus apella) em zoológicos

    | Contributor(s):: Glaucia Cristiana Wunderlich Farias

    O bem-estar dos animais mantidos em zoológicos pode ser afetado por aspectos de ordem estrutural, ambiental e pelos tipos de relações que os mesmos desenvolvem com os visitantes. Os macacos-prego (Cebus apella) encontram-se, atualmente, em número significativo em...

  4. The long-term impact of infant rearing background on the affective state of adult common marmosets ( Callithrix jacchus)

    | Contributor(s):: Ash, H., Buchanan-Smith, H. M.

    Early life environment, including temporary family separation, can have a major influence on affective state. Using a battery of tests, the current study compared the performance of adult common marmosets ( Callithrix jacchus), reared as infants under 3 different conditions: family-reared twins,...

  5. The Human Intruder Test: An Anxiety Assessment in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca Mulatta)

    | Contributor(s):: Emily J. Peterson

    The human intruder test (HIT) is a noninvasive tool widely used for assessing anxiety in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). This thesis explores the HIT procedure and applies it to a population of monkeys with a self-injurious behavioral pathology. Individual variation on this test can be used to...

  6. The effect of a feeding schedule change and the provision of forage material on hair eating in a group of captive baboons ( Papio hamadryas sp.)

    | Contributor(s):: Nevill, C. H., Lutz, C. K.

    Hair eating in nonhuman primates is thought to result from a frustrated appetitive drive produced by an inappropriate diet. To investigate whether hair eating could be reduced through changes in diet, a 2-part study was conducted with a group of baboons ( Papio hamadryas sp.). The 1st part...

  7. Effects of visual contact with zoo visitors on black-capped capuchin welfare

    | Contributor(s):: Sherwen, S. L., Harvey, T. J., Magrath, M. J. L., Butler, K. L., Fanson, K. V., Hemsworth, P. H.

    Previous research has suggested that the presence of zoo visitors may be stressful for various primate species, and visual contact with visitors may be the sensory stimuli that mediate visitor effects. We studied a group of black-capped capuchins, Cebus apella, in a controlled experiment,...

  8. Refinement of welfare through development of a quantitative system for assessment of lifetime experience

    | Contributor(s):: Wolfensohn, S., Sharpe, S., Hall, I., Lawrence, S., Kitchen, S., Dennis, M.

    This paper proposes a system that uses intrinsic study data to provide a clear visualisation of the stresses involved during the animal's life history that can be applied to all types of studies, even those not requiring invasive techniques. Thus, it provides an opportunity for researchers to...

  9. Social housing of non-human primates in a research facility: socialisation across macaque species and sexes

    | Contributor(s):: Rehrig, A., DiVincenti, L., Jr., Schery, L. A.

    Refinement of social housing practices is paramount to improving animal welfare in laboratory environments, especially with regard to non-human primates. Even though social housing of the same species should be considered the optimal paradigm, cynomolgus ( Macaca fascicularis) and rhesus macaques...

  10. A case study employing operant conditioning to reduce stress of capture for red-bellied tamarins ( Saguinus labiatus )

    | Contributor(s):: Owen, Y., Amory, J. R.

    Traditional techniques used to capture New World monkeys, such as net capture, can induce high levels of acute stress detrimental to welfare. Alternatively, training nonhuman animals via operant conditioning to voluntarily participate in husbandry and/or veterinary practices is accepted as a...

  11. A comparison of positive reinforcement training techniques in owl and squirrel monkeys: time required to train to reliability

    | Contributor(s):: Rogge, J., Sherenco, K., Malling, R., Thiele, E., Lambeth, S., Schapiro, S., Williams, L.

    Positive reinforcement training (PRT) techniques enhance the psychological well being of nonhuman primates by increasing the animal's control over his or her environment and desensitizing the animal to stressful stimuli. However, the literature on PRT in neotropical primates is limited. Here PRT...

  12. Artificial weaning of Old World monkeys: benefits and costs

    | Contributor(s):: Reinhardt, V.

    Permanent mother-infant separation prior to natural weaning is a common husbandry practice in monkey breeding colonies. In the United States, all eight Regional Primate Research Centres have such colonies. Under undisturbed conditions, Old World monkey mothers wean their infants at the age of...

  13. Blood collection procedure of laboratory primates: a neglected variable in biomedical research

    | Contributor(s):: Reinhardt, V., Reinhardt, A.

    A survey of 75 biomedical articles dealing with stress-dependent blood parameters ni caged primates revealed that the conditions under which blood collection occurred were in most cases described either not at all or so haphazardly that it would be impossible to determine if humane handling...

  14. Cage use and feeding height preferences of captive common marmosets ( Callithrix j. jacchus ) in two-tier cages

    | Contributor(s):: Buchanan-Smith, H. M., Shand, C., Morris, K.

    Determining appropriate feeding regimes has important welfare implications for captive primates. This study examined the preference of food bowl heights in 6 pairs of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) housed in a 2-tier cage system. Given that marmosets are arboreal and spend most of their...

  15. Effects of single-use and group-use enrichment on stereotypy and intragroup aggressive and affiliative behaviors of a social group of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) at the Singapore Zoo

    | Contributor(s):: Sha, J., Han, S., Marlena, D., Kee, J.

    Four food-based enrichment devices were used to test the effects of single-use and group-use enrichment devices on stereotypy, intragroup aggression, and affiliation in a compatible group of 5 squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). All enrichment devices were found to reduce overall stereotypic...

  16. Effects of training on stress-related behavior of the common marmoset ( Callithrix jacchus ) in relation to coping with routine husbandry procedures. (Training Nonhuman Primates Using Positive Reinforcement Techniques)

    | Contributor(s):: Bassett, L., Buchanan-Smith, H. M., McKinley, J., Smith, T. E.

    Using positive reinforcement, 12 common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) were trained to provide urine samples on request. The marmosets were exposed to mildly stressful, routine husbandry procedures (i.e., capture and weighing). The non-human animals spent less time inactive poststressor as...

  17. Efficient cooperative restraint training with rhesus macaques

    | Contributor(s):: Bliss-Moreau, E., Theil, J., Moadab, G.

    It is sometimes necessary for nonhuman primates to be restrained during biomedical and psychosocial research. Such restraint is often accomplished using a "primate chair." This article details a method for training adult rhesus macaques to cooperate with a chair restraint procedure using positive...

  18. Evaluating paint rollers as an intervention for alopecia in monkeys in the laboratory ( Macaca nemestrina )

    | Contributor(s):: Runeson, E. P., Lee, G. H., Crockett, C. M., Bellanca, R. U.

    Adult female macaques (Macaca nemestrina) in the laboratory with alopecia from known or suspected overgrooming were subjects in a study evaluating effectiveness of a grooming device. The intervention evaluated was a paint roller on a metal bar hung on the cage, replaced weekly for 6 weeks. In a...

  19. Fecal concentrations of cortisol, testosterone, and progesterone in cotton-top tamarins housed in different zoological parks: relationships among physiological data, environmental conditions, and behavioral patterns

    | Contributor(s):: Fontani, S., Vaglio, S., Beghelli, V., Mattioli, M., Bacci, S., Accorsi, P. A.

    The aim of this investigation was to study the welfare of 3 captive groups of cotton-top tamarins housed in different zoological parks. Ethological observations were conducted during 1 year. In addition, fecal samples were collected and the concentrations of glucocorticoids, androgens, and...

  20. Improving the welfare of captive macaques ( Macaca sp.) through the use of water as enrichment

    | Contributor(s):: Robins, J. G., Waitt, C. D.

    This review evaluates the use of water as a tool for enriching the environments of macaques (Macaca sp.) in captivity. Many macaque species are known to swim and forage in water in the wild, and in-situ reports suggest that access to water promotes activity and cultural behavior. Yet, there is a...