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  1. Developing and validating attention bias tools for assessing trait and state affect in animals: A worked example with Macaca mulatta

    Contributor(s):: Howarth, Emmeline R. I., Kemp, Caralyn, Thatcher, Harriet R., Szott, Isabelle D., Farningham, David, Witham, Claire L., Holmes, Amanda, Semple, Stuart, Bethell, Emily J.

  2. Influence of Biographical Variables and Academic Background on Attitudes towards Animal-Assisted Interventions

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: J. Lopez-Cepero, M.A. Perea-Mediavilla, J.L. Sarasola, A. Tejada

    Over the past two decades, there has been increasing evidence of the benefits of animal-assisted interventions (AAI) among diverse groups and settings. However, little is known of the variables that can affect the attitudes of professionals towards these interventions. Two studies were done...

  3. Personality traits modulate stress responses after enclosure change of captive capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus)

    | Contributor(s):: Ferreira, Vitor Hugo Bessa, Fonseca, Elanne De Paiva, Chagas, Ana Cecilia Correia Santos Das, Pinheiro, Luiz Guilherme Mesquita, Sousa, Maria Bernardete Cordeiro de, Silva, Hélderes Peregrino Alves da, Galvão-Coelho, Nicole Leite, Ferreira, Renata Gonçalves

    Husbandry procedures may cause behavioral and physiological changes to animals living in captivity. However, an individual’s reaction is not uniform and may be related to different coping strategies. In this study, we analyzed whether and how 12 adult captive capuchin monkeys (Sapajus...

  4. Social Behavior of a Reproducing Pair of the Philippine Tarsier (Tarsius syrichta) in Captivity

    | Contributor(s):: Wojciechowski, Filip J., Kaszycka, Katarzyna A., Řeháková, Milada

    Social interactions of the nocturnal primates are not well studied. One of the species for which social behavior is scarcely known is the Philippine tarsier (Tarsius [= Carlito] syrichta). We observed a reproducing pair of captive individuals over two mating seasons for two consecutive years. The...

  5. Understanding the Behavior of Sanctuary-Housed Chimpanzees During Public Programs

    | Contributor(s):: Hansen, Bethany K., Hopper, Lydia M., Fultz, Amy L., Ross, Stephen R.

    At zoos, and some sanctuaries, members of the public can observe the resident animals. Examining the characteristics and consequences of this type of human–animal encounter is important to understand public education and engagement as well as animal behavior and welfare. Zoos typically have a...

  6. Welfare impacts of the illegal wildlife trade in a cohort of confiscated greater slow lorises, Nycticebus coucang

    | Contributor(s):: Fuller, Grace, Eggen, Wilhelmina Frederica, Wirdateti, Wirdateti, Nekaris, K. A. I.

    Illegal harvesting and trade are major forces behind population declines of wild slow lorises (genus Nycticebus). The impacts of the wildlife trade on individual slow lorises have not been as well described. In this article, we describe quantitatively the consequences of the wildlife trade for 77...

  7. Use of Primates in Research: What Do We Know About Captive Strepsirrhine Primates?

    | Contributor(s):: Lázaro, Gloria Fernández, Zehr, Sarah, García, Enrique Alonso

    The increasing debate and restrictions on primate research have prompted many surveys about their status. However, there is a lack of information regarding strepsirrhine primates in the literature. This study provides an overview of research on strepsirrhines in captivity by analyzing scientific...

  8. Complexities of Using Wild versus Captive Activity Budget Comparisons for Assessing Captive Primate Welfare

    | Contributor(s):: Howell, Christian P., Cheyne, Susan M.

    Activity budget comparisons between groups or individuals in the wild and those in captivity are commonly used to determine the range of wild-type behaviors that nonhuman animals in captivity perform. These comparisons are conducted with the view that individuals displaying a greater range of...

  9. Visitor Perceptions of Captive, Endangered Barbary Macaques (Macaca sylvanus) Used as Photo Props in Jemaa El Fna Square, Marrakech, Morocco

    | Contributor(s):: Stazaker, Kristina, Mackinnon, Jay

    Visitors to Jemaa El Fna Square can pay to have their photograph taken with Barbary macaques. Our aim was to characterize visitors’ perceptions of such photo props, enabling demand-reducing interventions to be targeted appropriately and destination managers to maintain or enhance the visitor...

  10. Motivations for the Ownership of Captive Lemurs in Madagascar

    | Contributor(s):: Reuter, Kim E., Schaefer, Melissa S.

    The live capture of primates is occurring throughout the tropics and can be a threat to their conservation. Primates are owned as pets for a variety of reasons. Studies of the motivations for primate ownership have been conducted in several countries where they are endemic, but no study has...

  11. Social housing of surplus males of Javan langurs (Trachypithecus auratus): Compatibility of intact and castrated males in different social settings

    | Contributor(s):: Dröscher, Iris, Waitt, Corri D.

    Javan langurs (Trachypithecus auratus) naturally form social groups containing typically only one adult male. However, this social system is problematic with regard to captive management, as it can lead to the production of surplus males. The study assessed if castration is a feasible strategy to...

  12. The psychology of control: Effects of control over supplementary light on welfare of marmosets

    | Contributor(s):: Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M., Badihi, Inbal

    It is often argued that increasing the amount of control that animals have over various aspects of their environment has a positive effect on their welfare, despite limited empirical evidence. We gave 12 pairs of common marmosets (Master pairs) control over supplementary light in their cages...

  13. Individual differences in temperament and behavioral management practices for nonhuman primates

    | Contributor(s):: Coleman, Kristine

    Effective behavioral management plans are tailored to the unique behavioral patterns of each individual species. However, even within a species behavioral needs of individuals can vary. Factors such as age, sex, and temperament can affect behavioral needs of individuals. While some of these...

  14. Benefits of pair housing are consistent across a diverse population of rhesus macaques

    | Contributor(s):: Baker, Kate C., Bloomsmith, Mollie A., Oettinger, Brooke, Neu, Kimberly, Griffis, Caroline, Schoof, Valérie, Maloney, Margaret

    Introducing singly housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) into isosexual pairs is widely considered to improve welfare. The population of laboratory rhesus macaques is heterogeneous on a variety of factors and there is little literature available to directly evaluate the influence of many of...

  15. Association of antimicrobial resistance and gut microbiota composition in human and non-human primates at an urban ecotourism site

    | Contributor(s):: Chong, C. W., Alkatheeri, A. H. S., Ali, N., Tay, Z. H., Lee, Y. L., Paramasivam, S. J., Jeevaratnam, K., Low, W. Y., Lim, S. H. E.

  16. High rates of aggression do not predict rates of trauma in captive groups of macaques

    | Contributor(s):: Beisner, Brianne A., Wooddell, Lauren J., Hannibal, Darcy L., Nathman, Amy, McCowan, Brenda

    Socially inflicted traumas are a major concern for the management of captive groups of rhesus macaques. Rhesus macaques are the most commonly used nonhuman primate in biomedical research, and social housing is optimal for promoting psychological well-being. However, trauma is frequent due to a...

  17. Visitor effects on zoo-housed Sulawesi crested macaque (Macaca nigra) behaviour: Can signs with ‘watching eyes’ requesting quietness help?

    | Contributor(s):: Dancer, Alice M. M., Burn, Charlotte C.

    Visiting public can cause changes in the behaviour of zoo-housed primates. These effects, if indicative of stress, can be of welfare concern. However, few options to mitigate visitor effects through modulating visitor behaviour have been explored. Here we evaluated the effects of visitor number...

  18. A protocol for training group-housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to cooperate with husbandry and research procedures using positive reinforcement

    | Contributor(s):: Kemp, Caralyn, Thatcher, Harriet, Farningham, David, Witham, Claire, MacLarnon, Ann, Holmes, Amanda, Semple, Stuart, Bethell, Emily J.

    There has been increased recognition of the 3Rs in laboratory animal management over the last decade, including improvements in animal handling and housing. For example, positive reinforcement is now more widely used to encourage primates to cooperate with husbandry procedures, and improved...

  19. Happiness is positive welfare in brown capuchins (Sapajus apella)

    | Contributor(s):: Robinson, Lauren M., Waran, Natalie K., Leach, Matthew C., Morton, F. Blake, Paukner, Annika, Lonsdorf, Elizabeth, Handel, Ian, Wilson, Vanessa A. D., Brosnan, Sarah F., Weiss, Alexander

    Questionnaires that allow people who are familiar with individual animals to rate the welfare of these animals are an underutilised tool. We designed a 12-item welfare questionnaire and tested its reliability and associations with subjective well-being (SWB), locomotor stereotypy, and personality...

  20. Training success in group-housed long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) is better explained by personality than by social rank

    | Contributor(s):: Wergård, Eva-Marie, Westlund, Karolina, Spångberg, Mats, Fredlund, Helene, Forkman, Björn

    Using training to prepare laboratory animals for biomedical research is one important behavior management task. With increased knowledge about factors influencing training success, training programs may be optimized, resulting in a refinement of primate husbandry. Even when animals are trained...