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  1. Working for a dustbath: are hens increasing pleasure rather than reducing suffering?

    Contributor(s):: Widowski, T. M., Duncan, I. J. H.

    In this study, we measured hens' willingness to work to obtain substrate for dustbathing using a vertically swinging door to which weights could be added. 12 hens were trained to push through the door to enter a goal box containing peat moss. The hens were subjected to two series of trials to...

  2. Why do pigs root and in what will they root? A review on the exploratory behaviour of pigs in relation to environmental enrichment

    | Contributor(s):: Studnitz, M., Jensen, M. B., Pedersen, L. J.

    The intention of the new European legislation on rooting materials for pigs is to improve the welfare of pigs. The question is: which materials are suitable rooting materials for pigs? To answer this question the motivation for exploration in pigs is elucidated and the needs of the pigs in this...

  3. Comparison of the behaviour of captive white-faced capuchin monkeys ( Cebus capucinus ) in the presence of four kinds of deep litter

    | Contributor(s):: Ludes, E., Anderson, J. R.

    Captive white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) were placed in a large indoor room without or with deep litter made of wood chips, dried ground maize cob, wood wool or garden peat. Feed was scattered on the bare floor or on the litter and the behaviour of the monkeys was observed. When...

  4. Concurrent schedules of reinforcement as a method to quantify the relative attractiveness of two rooting materials

    | Contributor(s):: Pedersen, L. J., Jensen, M. B.

    Operant conditioning techniques were applied to investigate pigs' preference for peat and long straw using concurrent schedules of reinforcement. Ten pigs worked, by pressing one of two panels, for access to two different materials in daily 50 min test sessions. Workloads of the reference...

  5. The strength of pigs' preferences for different rooting materials measured using concurrent schedules of reinforcement

    | Contributor(s):: Pedersen, L. J., Holm, L., Jensen, M. B., Jorgensen, E.

    The aim of the present experiment was to measure pigs' preferences for four different rooting materials using a set-up where pigs were given the opportunity to consider the relative attractiveness of two different materials simultaneously. Ten pigs had access to work for 50 min daily in an...

  6. The importance of a food feedback in rooting materials for pigs measured by double demand curves with and without a common scaling factor

    | Contributor(s):: Holm, L., Jensen, M. B., Pedersen, L. J., Ladewig, J.

    The first objective was to test if pigs prefer a rooting material with food feedback to one without, and if they prefer to search for food while rooting compared to obtaining food without rooting. For measuring preferences we used cross-points between double demand curves. Demand curves describe...

  7. An investigation of the effect of environmental enrichment and space allowance on the behaviour and production of growing pigs

    | Contributor(s):: Beattie, V. E., Walker, N., Sneddon, I. A.

    Newly weaned 6-week-old pigs in groups of 6 littermates were placed in enriched environments with a floor space allowance of 0.5, 1.1, 1.7 or 2.3 msuperscript 2/pig (treatments 1-4, respectively). Treatment 5 was identical to treatment 4, except for the absence of enriching elements which...

  8. Preference testing of substrates by growing pigs

    | Contributor(s):: Beattie, V. E., Walker, N., Sneddon, I. A.

    The preferences of growing pigs for substrates were investigated by giving groups of 6 pigs a choice between 2 substrates in each test. The 7 substrates examined were concrete, mushroom compost (spent), peat, sand, sawdust, straw and woodbark. 13 comparisons of pairs of substrates were tested...