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  1. Frustrated appetitive foraging behavior, stereotypic pacing, and fecal glucocorticoid levels in snow leopards ( Uncia uncia ) in the Zurich Zoo

    Contributor(s):: Burgener, N., Gusset, M., Schmid, H.

    This study hypothesized that permanently frustrated, appetitive-foraging behavior caused the stereotypic pacing regularly observed in captive carnivores. Using 2 adult female snow leopards (U), solitarily housed in the Zurich Zoo, the study tested this hypothesis experimentally with a novel...

  2. Social attachment in giraffe: response to social separation

    Contributor(s):: Tarou, L. R., Bashaw, M. J., Maple, T. L.

    Attachment relationships between animals are often studied by separating a pair of individuals and recording their subsequent behaviour. Studies of non-human primates have shown that separation results in changes that are indicative of both psychological and physiological stress. Similar results...

  3. Development of stereotypies and polydipsia in wild caught bank voles ( Clethrionomys glareolus ) and their laboratory-bred offspring. Is polydipsia a symptom of diabetes mellitus?

    Contributor(s):: Schoenecker, B., Heller, K. E., Freimanis, T.

    The development of stereotypies and polydipsia was studied in wild caught bank voles (P: n=92) and their laboratory-bred offspring (F1: n=248). All animals were kept isolated in barren cages in the laboratory. In the P generation, no individuals developed stereotypies, but 22% developed...

  4. Behavior of picketed circus elephants

    Contributor(s):: Friend, T. H.

    The behaviour of 14 female Asian (Elephas maximus) and 3 female African (Loxodonta africana) elephants who performed 2 shows each day with a circus that travelled to a new location (40 to 250 km from the previous day's lot) daily, was studied. When not performing or working, the elephants were...

  5. The effect of penning versus picketing on stereotypic behavior of circus elephants

    Contributor(s):: Friend, T. H., Parker, M. L.

    The behaviour of 9 female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) who performed 2 shows each day with a circus that travelled to a new location in the USA (40 to 250 km from the previous day's lot) daily or every 2 days was studied during the 1996 and 1998 seasons. When not performing or working, the...

  6. Anticipatory behaviour and stereotypical behaviour in farmed mink ( Mustela vison ) in the presence, absence and after the removal of swimming water

    Contributor(s):: Vinke, C. M., Houx, B. B., Bos, R. van den, Spruijt, B. M.

    Captive animals are often provided with cage enrichments in order to improve their welfare. Swimming water is an often-discussed requirement for farmed mink. The present study aimed to give insight into the value of swimming water for farmed mink by measuring anticipatory and stereotypical...

  7. Foraging enrichment for individually housed horses: practicality and effects on behaviour

    Contributor(s):: Thorne, J. B., Goodwin, D., Kennedy, M. J., Davidson, H. P. B., Harris, P.

    The stabled (UK) or stalled (USA) horse is commonly fed a restricted-forage diet in contrast to the varied ad libitum high-fibre diet it evolved to consume. A low-forage diet has been linked to the performance of stereotypical behaviour and health problems including gastric ulceration and...

  8. Stereotypies and attentiveness to novel stimuli: a test in polar bears

    Contributor(s):: Wechsler, B.

    Marks of unfamiliar odours were placed on the stereotyped paths of two captive polar bears in order to test their attentiveness to novel stimuli during stereotyped walking. Both individuals significantly increased their rate of sniffing compared with stereotyped walking bouts without odour marks...

  9. Clinical ethology in food animal practice

    Contributor(s):: Luescher, U. A., Friendship, R. M., Lissemore, K. D., McKeown, D. B.

  10. Evaluation of crates and girth tethers for sows: reproductive performance, immunity, behavior and ergonomic measures

    Contributor(s):: McGlone, J. J., Salak-Johnson, J. L., Nicolson, R. I., Hicks, T.

    An evaluation was made for two common sow housing systems: the girth tether and crate. Littermate Yorkshire X Landrace gilts were randomly assigned to either the crate or girth tether system and they remained in that treatment for 2 consecutive pregnancies and lactations. A total of 171 matings...

  11. Behavioural deprivation: a central problem in animal welfare

    Contributor(s):: Dawkins, M. S.

  12. Effect of dietary fibre and feeding system on activity and oral behaviour of group housed gilts

    Contributor(s):: Brouns, F., Edwards, S. A., English, P. R.

    The low feeding level common in practice for dry sows has been linked to the occurrence of stereotypies. A total of 54 gilts were allocated to three treatments and housed in groups of 6 in straw bedded pens with individual feeding stalls. The treatments consisted of control (C) 2.0 kg of a...

  13. Motivation in relation to the welfare of enclosed livestock

    Contributor(s):: Dellmeier, G. R.

  14. Effects of group and individual housing on the behavior of kennelled dogs in animal shelters

    Contributor(s):: Mertens, P. A., Unshelm, J.

    To emphasize the effects of group- and single housing of kennelled dogs, the behavior of 211 dogs in two German animal shelters was tested and observed. After being placed, 197 of the dogs' new owners were interviewed.Although 51% of the German animal shelters already keep dogs in groups, there...

  15. Can't stop, won't stop: is stereotypy a reliable animal welfare indicator?

    Contributor(s):: Mason, G. J., Latham, N. R.

    We estimate that stereotypies are currently displayed by over 85 million farm, laboratory and zoo animals worldwide. This paper investigates their reliability as welfare indicators by surveying studies relating stereotypy to other welfare measures and by analysing the mechanisms underlying this...

  16. The early ontogeny of bar-gnawing in laboratory gerbils

    | Contributor(s):: Wiedenmayer, C.