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  1. A combination of behavioral and physiological indicators for assessing pig welfare on the farm

    Contributor(s):: Candiani, D., Salamano, G., Mellia, E., Doglione, L., Bruno, R., Toussaint, M., Gruys, E.

    The purpose of this research was to identify pig welfare indicators that could help in recognizing stressful practices on farm. The study evaluated behavioral and physiological indicators (cortisol and negative acute phase proteins) in 2 groups of 20 female pigs 4 months old after a 48-hr...

  2. A critical review of electrical water-bath stun systems for poultry slaughter and recent developments in alternative technologies

    Contributor(s):: Shields, S. J., Raj, A. B. M.

    Prior to slaughter, most farmed birds move through a constant-voltage, multiple-bird, electrical water-bath stun system. Using this system subjects live birds to stressful and painful shackling, and the potential exists for them to receive prestun electric shocks and induction of seizures while...

  3. A multidisciplinary approach to assess the welfare of weaned pigs during transport at three space allowances

    Contributor(s):: Sutherland, M. A., Bryer, P. J., Davis, B. L., McGlone, J. J.

    Transport can be a stressful experience for pigs, especially in pigs simultaneously experiencing weaning stress. The objective of this study was to use a multidisciplinary approach to assess the welfare of weaned pigs during transport at 3 space allowances. A commercial semitrailer, fitted with...

  4. A nonnatural head-neck position ( Rollkur ) during training results in less acute stress in elite, trained, dressage horses

    Contributor(s):: Breda, E. van

    This study measured parameters of stress in recreational, trained horses (REC; n=7) and elite (International Grand Prix level) trained, dressage horses (DRES; n=5). The training of the DRES horses uses an unnatural head-neck position (Rollkur), whereas in the REC horses such training techniques...

  5. An hourly variation in zoo visitor interest: measurement and significance for animal welfare research

    Contributor(s):: Davey, G.

    A methodological difficulty facing welfare research on nonhuman animals in the zoo is the large number of uncontrolled variables due to variation within and between study sites. Zoo visitors act as uncontrolled variables, with number, density, size, and behaviour constantly changing. This is...

  6. Assessing acute effects of trapping, handling, and tagging on the behavior of wildlife using GPS telemetry: a case study of the common brushtail possum

    Contributor(s):: Dennis, T. E., Shah, S. F.

    Trapping, handling, and deployment of tracking devices (tagging) are essential aspects of many research and conservation studies of wildlife. However, often these activities place nonhuman animals under considerable physical or psychological distress, which disrupts normal patterns of behavior...

  7. Behavioral and hormonal consequences of transporting giant pandas from China to the United States

    Contributor(s):: Snyder, R. J., Perdue, B. M., Powell, D. M., Forthman, D. L., Bloomsmith, M. A., Maple, T. L.

    Zoological institutions strive to ensure the welfare of nonhuman animals in captivity. Part of this effort involves reducing the level of distress experienced by an animal to the greatest extent possible. However, some necessary zoo management practices such as transportation induce stress...

  8. Can ambient sound reduce distress in piglets during weaning and restraint?

    Contributor(s):: Cloutier, S., Weary, D. M., Fraser, D.

    This study monitored the vocal responses of piglets, as indicators of well-being, to evaluate the effect of various sounds played during 2 simulations of stressful farm procedures: (a) the 5 min the animals were held as if for castration and (b) the first 20 h after weaning. The sound treatments...

  9. Dairy cow behavior and welfare implications of time waiting before entry into the milking parlor

    Contributor(s):: Dijkstra, C., Veermae, I., Praks, J., Poikalainen, V., Arney, D. R.

    The objective of this study was to investigate dairy cows' time spent in the possibly stressful waiting area (WA) of the milking parlor (MP) and their behavioral patterns while there and thereby investigate comparative effects on their welfare. The experiments were carried out in 3 loose-housing...

  10. Development and validation of a behavioral acclimation protocol for cats to respiration chambers used for indirect calorimetry studies

    Contributor(s):: Gooding, M. A., Duncan, I. J. H., Atkinson, J. L., Shoveller, A. K.

    Cats exposed to novel environments initiate stress responses by behavioral and physiological changes that modify metabolism and lead to the collection of unreliable data. Fourteen cats (10+or-2 months) were subjected to an 11-week acclimation procedure to adapt to restriction within chambers used...

  11. Distressed animal behaviors and some recommendations for improvements at the Kuala Lumpur Zoo, Malaysia

    Contributor(s):: Amber, Haque

    The artificial living conditions of captive animals present numerous challenges for animal caretakers. In this study I explored abnormal behaviors in certain caged animals at the Kuala Lumpur Zoo. Findings obtained from observations of animals and interviews of the zoo staff are followed by...

  12. Effects of single-use and group-use enrichment on stereotypy and intragroup aggressive and affiliative behaviors of a social group of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) at the Singapore Zoo

    Contributor(s):: Sha, J., Han, S., Marlena, D., Kee, J.

    Four food-based enrichment devices were used to test the effects of single-use and group-use enrichment devices on stereotypy, intragroup aggression, and affiliation in a compatible group of 5 squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). All enrichment devices were found to reduce overall stereotypic...

  13. Effects of training on stress-related behavior of the common marmoset ( Callithrix jacchus ) in relation to coping with routine husbandry procedures. (Training Nonhuman Primates Using Positive Reinforcement Techniques)

    Contributor(s):: Bassett, L., Buchanan-Smith, H. M., McKinley, J., Smith, T. E.

    Using positive reinforcement, 12 common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) were trained to provide urine samples on request. The marmosets were exposed to mildly stressful, routine husbandry procedures (i.e., capture and weighing). The non-human animals spent less time inactive poststressor as...

  14. Factors affecting behavior and welfare of service dogs for children with autism spectrum disorder

    Contributor(s):: Burrows, K. E., Adams, C. L., Millman, S. T.

    The use of service dogs for children with autism spectrum disorder is a relatively new and growing assistance-dog application. The objectives of this article were to identify and describe the factors influencing an autism service dog's performance and the impact of this type of placement on the...

  15. Flaws in federal regulations pertaining to the welfare of primates kept in research institutions

    Contributor(s):: Reinhardt, V.

    Federal welfare regulations for primates kept in research laboratories fail to (a) include recommendations pertaining to the legal requirement of the avoidance of stress and unnecessary discomfort during handling procedures, (b) specify how the legally required "uniform illumination" can be...

  16. Frustrated appetitive foraging behavior, stereotypic pacing, and fecal glucocorticoid levels in snow leopards ( Uncia uncia ) in the Zurich Zoo

    Contributor(s):: Burgener, N., Gusset, M., Schmid, H.

    This study hypothesized that permanently frustrated, appetitive-foraging behavior caused the stereotypic pacing regularly observed in captive carnivores. Using 2 adult female snow leopards (U), solitarily housed in the Zurich Zoo, the study tested this hypothesis experimentally with a novel...

  17. Lion, ungulate, and visitor reactions to playbacks of lion roars at Zoo Atlanta

    Contributor(s):: Kelling, A. S., Allard, S. M., Kelling, N. J., Sandhaus, E. A., Maple, T. L.

    Felids in captivity are often inactive and elusive in zoos, leading to a frustrating visitor experience. Eight roars were recorded from an adult male lion and played back over speakers as auditory enrichment to benefit the lions while simultaneously enhancing the zoo visitor experience. In...

  18. Minimal number of conspecifics needed to minimize the stress response of isolated mature ewes

    Contributor(s):: Carbajal, S., Orihuela, A.

    The objective of this study was to determine the minimum number of conspecifics that sheep require to minimize the stress associated with isolation from the flock. The study used twelve 3-year-old Suffolk ewes. Every test day, the study randomly selected 1, 2 or 3 ewes to be visually separated...

  19. Noise in the animal shelter environment: building design and the effects of daily noise exposure

    Contributor(s):: Coppola, C. L., Enns, R. M., Grandin, T.

    Sound levels in animal shelters regularly exceed 100 dB. Noise is a physical stressor on animals that can lead to behavioral, physiological, and anatomical responses. There are currently no policies regulating noise levels in dog kennels. The objective of this study was to evaluate the noise...

  20. Physiological arousal for companion dogs working with their owners in animal-assisted activities and animal-assisted therapy

    Contributor(s):: Haubenhofer, D. K., Kirchengast, S.

    This study investigated the physiological reactions of companion dogs (Canis familiaris) used in animal-assisted activities and animal-assisted therapy by measuring salivary cortisol concentrations. The dog caregivers (owners) collected saliva samples (a) at 3 control days without therapeutic...