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Tags: taxonomy + Evolution

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  1. Coping strategies in captive capuchin monkeys ( Sapajus spp.)

    Contributor(s):: Ferreira, R. G., Mendl, M., Wagner, P. G. C., Araujo, T., Nunes, D., Mafra, A. L.

    Studies on diverse species indicate the existence of individual differences in stress coping strategies labelled as 'proactive' and 'reactive'. Identifying taxonomic distribution of such coping strategies is fundamental to evolutionary models and to management of captive animals. Capuchin monkeys...

  2. Public knowledge and perception of toads and frogs in three areas of subtropical Southeast China

    Contributor(s):: Jimenez, J. N., Lindemann-Matthies, P.

    This study investigated people's perceptions and knowledge of toads and frogs in three areas of Southeast China: rural Gutian Shan, semi-rural Xin Gan Shan, and the city of Quzhou. In 2010, 672 randomly selected laypersons (between eight and 80 years old) were interviewed with the help of a...

  3. Is There Still Hope for a Scholastic Ontology of Biological Species?

    Contributor(s):: Dumsday, Travis

  4. A case for a naturalistic perspective: response to Lawrence and Bekoff

    Contributor(s):: Paxton, D. W.

    The author responds to commentaries on his original paper noting that "The paper is about questions, not answers. The orthodoxanswer in urban animal management — responsible pet ownership — is really the target of the naturalistic perspective. The paper requests urban authorities to always ask...

  5. Paxton's panorama: naturalizing the bonds between people and dogs

    Contributor(s):: Bekoff, M.

    The author "want[s] to point out some gray areas in Paxton’s essay where I think more fleshing out is needed, especially how hisideas relate, perhaps uniquely, to the human–dog bond."

  6. The hunter-gatherer prehistory of human-animal interactions

    Contributor(s):: Mithen, S.

    In this paper, the author "will examine some of the key moments in the evolution of human relationships with animals, tracking the emergence of these new relationships and the impact they havehad on our bodies, our minds and our culture," particularly the more recent hunting-gatherers of...

  7. The status of instrument development in the human-animal interaction field

    Contributor(s):: Wilson, C. C., Netting, F. E.

    An overview of available instruments that assess characteristics of human–animal interactions is provided, followed by a matrix of 140 tools, what they measure, information on structure and properties, original published sources, and a citation, when available, to another study in which the...

  8. The evolution of imitation: what do the capacities of non-human animals tell us about the mechanisms of imitation? (Special Issue: Evolution, development and intentional control of imitation.)

    Contributor(s):: Huber, L., Range, F., Voelkl, B., Szucsich, A., Viranyi, Z., Miklosi, A.

    In this paper, we review reports and present new empirical data from studies with marmosets and dogs that address the correspondence problem of imitation research. We focus on the question of how it is possible to transform visual information into matching motor acts. Here, the important issue is...

  9. Heterogeneity and phylogenetic relationships of community-associated methicillin-sensitive/resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates in healthy dogs, cats and their owners

    Contributor(s):: Wan, M. T., Fu, S. Y., Lo, Y. P., Huang, T. M., Cheng, M. M., Chou, C. C.

    Aims: To investigate the distribution of staphylococcal enterotoxin genes (se) and the molecular features of community-associated methicillin-sensitive/resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MSSA/MRSA) isolates in the nostrils of healthy pets and their owners. Methods and Results: A total of 114...

  10. Animal welfare: should we change housing to better accommodate the animal or change the animal to accommodate the housing?

    Contributor(s):: Cheng, Heng-Wei

    Animal welfare (well-being) can be generally defined as 'a state of harmony between the animal and its environment, characterized by optimal physical, behavioural and psychological functioning and high quality of the animal's life'. Since its inception in the early nineteenth century, through...

  11. Animal pleasure and its moral significance. (Special Issue: Animal suffering and welfare.)

    Contributor(s):: Balcombe, J.

    This paper presents arguments for, and evidence in support of, the important role of pleasure in animals' lives, and outlines its considerable significance to humankind's relationship to other animals. In the realms of animal sentience, almost all scholarly discussion revolves around its negative...

  12. The hereditary " fixing " of individually acquired behaviour of animals and the origin of instincts

    Contributor(s):: Krusinskii, L. V.

    ELEVEN German Shepherd dogs [Alsatian] of different ages were trained (1) to bring objects to the trainer, (2) to bring them on a command, (3) to get an object and then bring it on a command, and (4) to go when commanded and bring an object without a command. The best performances of these 4...

  13. Genetics and animal domestication: new windows on an elusive process

    Contributor(s):: Dobney, K., Larson, G.

    Domesticated animals are universally familiar. How, when, where and why they became domesticated is less well understood. The genetic revolution of the past few decades has facilitated novel insights into a field that previously was principally the domain of archaeozoologists. Although some of...

  14. Why in earth? Dustbathing behaviour in jungle and domestic fowl reviewed from a Tinbergian and animal welfare perspective

    Contributor(s):: Olsson, I. A. S., Keeling, L. J.

    Dustbathing has been the subject of much research in captive birds. In the present review we bring together the studies of domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus) and jungle fowl (G. gallus) to provide a more complete picture of the behaviour. Dustbathing is discussed from the four aspects...

  15. The significance of horns and other male secondary sexual characters in female bovids

    Contributor(s):: Estes, R. D.

    A hypothesis is presented which states that [female][female] mimic [male] secondary sexual characters (e.g. through the evolution of horns) to buffer their [male] offspring against the aggression of dominant [male][male], thereby prolonging the presence of their sons in the natal herd and home...

  16. A case for a naturalistic perspective

    Contributor(s):: Paxton, D. W.

    This paper continues the debate on a unifying theory of the human-companion animal bond, begun in the first volume of Anthrozoos by Kidd and Kidd (1987:140-57). Research is cited in which the relationship between people and the dog is the case study. It is argued that the animal-animal model may...

  17. Elephants in ancient Egypt and Nubia

    Contributor(s):: Lobban, R. A., Jr., Liedekerke, V. de

    This article examines the presence of elephants in civilizations of the ancient Nile valley, where they were hunted and distributed to Egypt and to the Classical Greco-Roman world for ivory, amusement, and military purposes. The full study of elephants requires diverse multi-disciplinary research...

  18. The origin of the dog revisited

    Contributor(s):: Koler-Matznick, J.

    The most widely accepted hypothesis of the origin of the dog, Canis familiaris, is that the dog is a domesticated grey wolf, Canis lupus. This paper reviews the evidence for this conclusion, finds many unanswered questions and conceptual gaps in the wolf origin hypothesis, and explores the...

  19. Breeding amiable animals? Improving farm animal welfare by including social effects in breeding programmes

    Contributor(s):: Rodenburg, T. B., Bijma, P., Ellen, E. D., Bergsma, R., Vries, S. de, Bolhuis, J. E., Kemp, B., Arendonk, J. A. M. van

    Social interactions between individuals, such as co-operation and competition, are key factors in evolution by natural selection. As a consequence, evolutionary biologists have developed extensive theories to understand the consequences of social interactions for response to natural selection....

  20. Could empathy for animals have been an adaptation in the evolution of Homo sapiens ?

    Contributor(s):: Bradshaw, J. W. S., Paul, E. S.

    In humans, empathy has emotional and cognitive components, both of which are linked to caring and nurturant behaviour. Variations in each of these facets of empathy were likely to have been accessible to natural selection during the evolution of Homo, although the likely details of their...