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  1. A case study employing operant conditioning to reduce stress of capture for red-bellied tamarins ( Saguinus labiatus )

    Contributor(s):: Owen, Y., Amory, J. R.

    Traditional techniques used to capture New World monkeys, such as net capture, can induce high levels of acute stress detrimental to welfare. Alternatively, training nonhuman animals via operant conditioning to voluntarily participate in husbandry and/or veterinary practices is accepted as a...

  2. A review of behavioral assessment protocols used by Australian animal shelters to determine the adoption suitability of dogs

    Contributor(s):: Mornement, K. M., Coleman, G. J., Toukhsati, S., Bennett, P. C.

    Shelter dogs typically undergo preadoption assessment for suitability as companions. Dogs who pass are available for adoption. Available resources determine whether dogs who fail are euthanized or rehabilitated. Accurate assessment of shelter-dog behavior is imperative to protect community...

  3. An empirical case study examining effectiveness of environmental enrichment in two captive Australian Sea Lions ( Neophoca cinerea )

    Contributor(s):: Smith, B. P., Litchfield, C. A.

    This case study examined the effect of environmental enrichment on the activity budgets of a male and female Australian Sea Lion (Neophoca cinerea) housed together at Adelaide Zoo. Using non-food-related (intrinsic) and food-related (extrinsic) enrichment objects, the study conducted an ABABA...

  4. An hourly variation in zoo visitor interest: measurement and significance for animal welfare research

    Contributor(s):: Davey, G.

    A methodological difficulty facing welfare research on nonhuman animals in the zoo is the large number of uncontrolled variables due to variation within and between study sites. Zoo visitors act as uncontrolled variables, with number, density, size, and behaviour constantly changing. This is...

  5. Animal welfare - scientific approaches to the issues

    Contributor(s):: Millman, S. T.

    Nonhuman animal welfare is of significant public interest, globally and within the United States. Value-based judgments are intrinsic to animal welfare assessment, according to the relative weighting of factors associated with animal performance, health, affective states, and natural living. The...

  6. Assessing acute effects of trapping, handling, and tagging on the behavior of wildlife using GPS telemetry: a case study of the common brushtail possum

    Contributor(s):: Dennis, T. E., Shah, S. F.

    Trapping, handling, and deployment of tracking devices (tagging) are essential aspects of many research and conservation studies of wildlife. However, often these activities place nonhuman animals under considerable physical or psychological distress, which disrupts normal patterns of behavior...

  7. Bobcat ( Lynx rufus ) breeding in captivity: the importance of environmental enrichment

    Contributor(s):: Molla, M. I., Quevedo, M. A., Castro, F.

    Environmental enrichment is an improvement in the biological functioning of nonhuman animals in captivity resulting from modifications to their environment; however, specifying appropriate and practical measures of enrichment is problematic. This study analyzes the behavior of 4 bobcats (Lynx...

  8. Circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus): a factor to consider during welfare assessment

    Contributor(s):: Menargues, A., Urios, V., Liminana, R., Mauri, M.

    Elevated glucocorticoid levels during an extended time period might be a stress indicator in nonhuman animals. Therefore, knowledge of the circadian pattern of cortisol secretion is very important to correctly interpret data obtained for welfare assessment of animals in captivity through salivary...

  9. Environmental enrichment for dendrobatid frogs

    Contributor(s):: Hurme, K., Gonzalez, K., Halvorsen, M., Foster, B., Moore, D., Chepko-Sade, B. D.

    The Central Park Zoo, one of the Wildlife Conservation Society's Living Institutions in New York, recently renovated an exhibit for dart-poison frogs. Staff developed a new hollow coconut insect feeder in conjunction with this project. When the exhibit change, coconut feeder, and other...

  10. Humane killing of nonhuman animals for disease control purposes

    Contributor(s):: Raj, M.

    Reports and guidelines produced by international institutions such as the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE, 2005) describe various methods of killing nonhuman animals. Selection and implementation of a killing method may involve several factors. Preventing or minimizing risk to human...

  11. If you knew what was good for you! The value of environmental enrichments with known welfare benefits is not demonstrated by sows using operant techniques

    Contributor(s):: Elmore, M. R. P., Garner, J. P., Johnson, A. K., Kirkden, R. D., Richert, B. T., Pajor, E. A.

    This study assessed the motivation of gestating sows housed in standard, barren gestation stalls (used for breeding/implantation and/or gestation) for access to environmental enrichment. Enrichment consisted of a cotton rope or rubber mat in comparison to positive (additional food when fed at...

  12. Improving the welfare of captive macaques ( Macaca sp.) through the use of water as enrichment

    Contributor(s):: Robins, J. G., Waitt, C. D.

    This review evaluates the use of water as a tool for enriching the environments of macaques (Macaca sp.) in captivity. Many macaque species are known to swim and forage in water in the wild, and in-situ reports suggest that access to water promotes activity and cultural behavior. Yet, there is a...

  13. Influence of cinnamon and catnip on the stereotypical pacing of oncilla cats ( Leopardus tigrinus ) in captivity

    Contributor(s):: Resende, L. de S., Gomes, K. C. P., Andriolo, A., Genaro, G., Remy, G. L., Ramos Junior, V. de A.

    Nonhuman animals in captivity can experience environmental privation that results in their exhibiting abnormal behaviors. Environmental enrichment techniques can help improve their welfare. This study investigated the behavior of 8 zoo-housed oncilla cats (Leopardus tigrinus) in response to 2...

  14. Managing feral cats on a university's campuses: how many are there and is sterilization having an effect?

    Contributor(s):: Jones, A. L., Downs, C. T.

    Worldwide domestic and feral cat (Felis catus) numbers have increased. Concerns regarding high populations of feral cats in urban areas include wildlife predation, public nuisance, and disease. This study aimed to estimate the size of the feral cat population on 5 campuses of the University of...

  15. Owner attachment and problem behaviors related to relinquishment and training techniques of dogs

    Contributor(s):: Kwan, J. Y., Bain, M. J.

    Problematic behaviors are a significant reason for relinquishment, and relinquished dogs are more likely to have problem behaviors. This study utilized standardized surveys of owners (companion animal guardians) relinquishing their dogs to shelters and dog owners visiting vaccination clinics....

  16. Self-harm in laboratory-housed primates: where is the evidence that the Animal Welfare Act amendment has worked?

    Contributor(s):: Balcombe, J., Ferdowsian, H., Durham, D.

    The 1985 amendment to the United States Animal Welfare Act (AWA) to promote psychological well being of primates in the laboratory represents an acknowledgment of an important welfare problem concerning nonhuman animals. How effective has this amendment been? Perhaps the best-known contributor to...

  17. Siamangs ( Hylobates syndactylus ) and white-cheeked gibbons ( Hylobates leucogenys ) show few behavioral differences related to zoo attendance

    Contributor(s):: Smith, K. N., Kuhar, C. W.

    The effect of visitors on behavior and welfare of nonhuman animals in the zoo has been an active research topic during the last few decades. Although research has variously shown negative or positive impacts of zoo visitors on animals in captivity, previous primate research at Disney's Animal...

  18. Simple cannulation procedure for serial blood sampling through cutaneous ulnar vein in chickens

    Contributor(s):: Bayer, D. M., Mohan, K., Jayakumar, K., Manafi, M., Pavithra, B. H.

    The objective of the study was to collect repeated, low-stress blood samples from the ulnar vein of chickens required for pharmacokinetic studies or hormonal assays. The study used 5 apparently healthy, unsexed, commercial broiler chickens about 6 weeks old and weighing 1.7-1.9 kg for serial...

  19. Training large macaws for artificial insemination procedures

    Contributor(s):: Leblanc, F., Pothet, G., Jalme, M. S., Dorval, M., Bovet, D.

    For some endangered parrot species, captive breeding may be the only insurance for their survival. However, many individuals in captivity do not reproduce. Artificial insemination (AI) may help overcome reproductive failures or geographic distance. For semen collection in birds, massage is the...

  20. Urinary corticosterone levels in mice in response to intraperitoneal injections with saline

    Contributor(s):: Meijer, M. K., Lemmens, A. G., Zutphen, B. F. M. van, Baumans, V.

    The concept of refinement is an important issue in the field of laboratory animal science. Refinement-based research aims to improve animal welfare, to increase the reliability of experimental outcome, and to diminish variation. In search of refinement of experimental techniques, this study...