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  1. Canine scent detection of human cancers: a review of methods and accuracy

    Contributor(s):: Moser, E., McCulloch, M.

  2. Effects of training on stress-related behavior of the common marmoset ( Callithrix jacchus ) in relation to coping with routine husbandry procedures. (Training Nonhuman Primates Using Positive Reinforcement Techniques)

    Contributor(s):: Bassett, L., Buchanan-Smith, H. M., McKinley, J., Smith, T. E.

    Using positive reinforcement, 12 common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) were trained to provide urine samples on request. The marmosets were exposed to mildly stressful, routine husbandry procedures (i.e., capture and weighing). The non-human animals spent less time inactive poststressor as...

  3. Urinary corticosterone levels in mice in response to intraperitoneal injections with saline

    Contributor(s):: Meijer, M. K., Lemmens, A. G., Zutphen, B. F. M. van, Baumans, V.

    The concept of refinement is an important issue in the field of laboratory animal science. Refinement-based research aims to improve animal welfare, to increase the reliability of experimental outcome, and to diminish variation. In search of refinement of experimental techniques, this study...

  4. Development of a novel paradigm for the measurement of olfactory discrimination in dogs ( Canis familiaris): a pilot study

    Contributor(s):: Salvin, H. E., McGrath, C., McGreevy, P. D., Valenzuela, M. J.

    Olfactory dysfunction in older human beings has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline, yet age-related changes in olfactory behavior have received little attention in the dog model of human aging. We developed an odor habituation and fine odor discrimination...

  5. Human-animal interactions and animal welfare in conventionally and pen-housed rats

    Contributor(s):: Augustsson, H., Lindberg, L., Hoglund, A. U., Dahlborn, K.

    The main aim of the present study was to explore the significance of large group/greater pen housing (PH) versus standard Makrolon caging (ST) in three behaviour tests related to human-animal interactions in the adult male laboratory rat. The rats' perception of human interaction was tested in...

  6. Urinary behavior of female domestic dogs ( Canis familiaris ): influence of reproductive status, location, and age

    Contributor(s):: Wirant, S. C., McGuire, B.

    The urinary behaviour of adult domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) is sexually dimorphic with respect to the posture (males lift a leg and females squat), frequency of urination (males urinate more frequently than females), and tendency to direct urine at specific objects in the environment (males...

  7. Diurnal distribution of dairy cow defecation and urination

    Contributor(s):: Aland, A., Lidfors, L., Ekesbo, I.

    This study investigated the diurnal distribution of urination and defaecation in tied dairy cows with reference to management routines and milk yield/feeding intensity. A total of 16 lactating cows and 4 heifers were videotaped during 9 consecutive 24-h periods. The cows had a mean of 16.1...

  8. Evidence that zoo visitors influence HPA activity in spider monkeys ( Ateles geoffroyii rufiventris ). (Special issue: Primates in zoos)

    Contributor(s):: Davis, N., Schaffner, C. M., Smith, T. E.

    There has been conflicting evidence about the impact of visitors on zoo animals. The present study was designed to increase understanding of visitor effect by assessing the relationship between visitor numbers and activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. An enzyme-immunoassay...

  9. Stereotypies and cortisol secretion in heifers subjected to tethering

    Contributor(s):: Redbo, I.

    The aims of this study were to assess the effect of tethering on environmentally induced stereotypies and urine cortisol concentrations in Swedish Red and White heifers, and to analyse a possible relationship between the performance of stereotypies and cortisol concentration. Three groups of...

  10. To swim or not to swim: an interpretation of farmed mink's motivation for a water bath

    Contributor(s):: Vinke, C. M., Hansen, S. W., Mononen, J., Korhonen, H., Cooper, J. J., Mohaibes, M., Bakken, M., Spruijt, B. M.

    How an animal's behavioural needs can be met is a pivotal issue in the assessment of welfare for captive animals. The value of swimming water for farmed mink is an example of how scientific and societal questions relating to animal welfare can be answered. A number of studies have addressed the...

  11. Behavioral responses of bulls kept under artificial breeding conditions to compounds presented for olfaction, taste or with topical nasal application

    Contributor(s):: Presicce, G. A., Brockett, C. C., Cheng, T., Foote, R. H., Rivard, G. F., Klemm, W. R.

    The object of this study was to test practical ways of influencing behaviour of bulls used for artificial insemination. Dairy bulls that were sexually active with regular semen collections were compared with sexually inactive bulls housed elsewhere, after being sampled in artificial breeding as...

  12. The maintenance behaviour and cleanliness of pigs in two-tier weaner decks

    Contributor(s):: Lewis, N. J., Christison, G. I.

    Tiered weaner decks for pigs appear to have a major disadvantage because the faeces and urine from the pigs in the top pens drop through to the pigs in the lower pens. This may affect the well-being of these pigs and may cause the development of poor dunging habits. To determine the general...

  13. A brief report on effects of transfer from outdoor grazing to indoor tethering and back on urinary cortisol and behaviour in dairy cattle

    Contributor(s):: Higashiyama, Y., Nashiki, M., Narita, H., Kawasaki, M.

    The present study was performed to investigate the effects of transferring cattle (n=7) from pasture to indoor confinement and their return to pasture on their physiological and behavioural responses. On the day after the cows were moved to indoor tethering, urinary cortisol increased...

  14. Discrimination between conspecific odour samples in the horse ( Equus caballus )

    Contributor(s):: Hothersall, B., Harris, P., Sortoft, L., Nicol, C. J.

    Behavioural observations suggest that smell is important in social discriminations between horses but balanced studies of this capacity are lacking. We used a habituation-discrimination procedure to investigate the ability of horses to distinguish between pairs of odour samples from different...

  15. Characterising the emotional reactivity of cows to understand and predict their stress reactions to the slaughter procedure

    Contributor(s):: Bourguet, C., Deiss, V., Gobert, M., Durand, D., Boissy, A., Terlouw, E. M. C.

    The present study on 32 Normand cows evaluated whether it is possible to identify, during rearing, individuals likely to be relatively reactive to the slaughter procedure. It evaluated further which factors may contribute to stress during the pre-slaughter period. Behavioural and physiological...

  16. Discrimination between the odours of fresh oestrous and non-oestrous ewe urine by rams

    Contributor(s):: Blissitt, M. J., Bland, K. P., Cottrell, D. F.

    Four sexually experienced adult Suffolk and Cheviot rams were trained by operant conditioning to discriminate between oestrous and non-oestrous ewe urine odours. Fresh oestrous and non-oestrous urine was collected from pairs of ewes during standing oestrus and days 6-11 of the cycle resp., within...

  17. Olfactory and vomeronasal chemoreception and the discrimination of oestrous and non-oestrous ewe urine odours by the ram

    Contributor(s):: Blissitt, M. J., Bland, K. P., Cottrell, D. F.

    Evidence was obtained that odour access to the vomeronasal organs is not necessary for adult rams to discriminate between oestrous and non-oestrous ewe urine odours. The chemoreceptors mediating this discrimination are located intranasally, probably in the main olfactory epithelium. Zinc sulphate...

  18. Alarm pheromones in urine modify the behaviour of weaner pigs

    Contributor(s):: Amory, J. R., Pearce, G. P.

    Pigs undergoing an alarming experience may produce olfactory stimuli (pheromones) in their urine, which may have consequences for the welfare of other pigs exposed to these stimuli. 12 young adult female pigs (gilts) were restrained for 30 min in feeding stalls (a potentially alarming experience)...

  19. Changes in ear-pinna temperature as a useful measure of stress in sheep ( ovis aries )

    Contributor(s):: Lowe, T. E., Cook, C. J., Ingram, J. R., Harris, P. J.

    Activation of the sympathetic nervous system, with associated increases in heart rate and the redistribution of blood in preparation for 'fight or flight', is an integral part of the 'defence reaction'. In sheep, the defence reaction involves vasoconstriction in the ear-pinna. If decreases in...

  20. Enriching the metabolic cage: effects on rat physiology and behaviour

    Contributor(s):: Sorensen, D. B., Mortensen, K., Bertelsen, T., Vognbjerg, K.

    Metabolic cages are used for housing rats and mice for up to five days for collection of urine and/or faeces. The small, barren area of the metabolic cage compromises animal welfare as the animals lack a solid floor, shelter, nest material and social contact. We constructed and tested a...