A Mini Review of the Zoonotic Threat Potential of Influenza Viruses, Coronaviruses, Adenoviruses, and Enteroviruses
| Contributor(s):: Emily S Bailey, Jane K Fieldhouse, Jessica Y Choi, Gregory C Gray
During the last two decades, scientists have grown increasingly aware that viruses are emerging from the human–animal interface. In particular, respiratory infections are problematic; in early 2003, World Health Organization issued a worldwide alert for a previously unrecognized illness...
The continual threat of influenza virus infections at the human–animal interface: What is new from a one health perspective?
| Contributor(s):: Emily S Bailey, Jessica Y Choi, Jane K Fieldhouse, Laura Borkenhagen, Juliana Zemke, Dingmei Zhang, Gregory C Gray
This year, in 2018, we mark 100 years since the 1918 influenza pandemic. In the last 100 years, we have expanded our knowledge of public health and increased our ability to detect and prevent influenza; however, we still face challenges resulting from these continually evolving viruses. Today,...
Hendra Virus Vaccine, a One Health Approach to Protecting Horse, Human, and Environmental Health
| Contributor(s):: Deborah Middleton, Jackie Pallister, Reuben Klein, Yan-Ru Feng, Jessica Haining, Rachel Arkinstall, Leah Frazer, Jin-An Huang, Nigel Edwards, Mark Wareing, Martin Elhay, Zia Hashmi, John Bingham, Manabu Yamada, Dayna Johnson, John White, Adam Foord, Hans G. Heine, Glenn A. Marsh, Christopher C. Broder, Lin-Fa Wang
In recent years, the emergence of several highly pathogenic zoonotic diseases in humans has led to a renewed emphasis on the interconnectedness of human, animal, and environmental health, otherwise known as One Health. For example, Hendra virus...
Zoonotic diagrams: mastering and unsettling human-animal relations
| Contributor(s):: Lynteris, Christos
Hepatitis E Virus Serosurvey among Pet Dogs and Cats in Several Developed Cities in China
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| Contributor(s):: Huanbin Liang, Jidang Chen, Jiexiong Xie, Long Sun, Fanxiao Ji, Shuyi He, Yun Zheng, Chumin Liang, Guihong Zhang, Shuo Su, Shoujun Li
Infection by Hepatitis E virus (HEV), as a zoonotic disease virus, is well studied in pigs in China, but few studies in pets have been performed. This study was designed to characterize the prevalence of HEV infection among pet dogs and cats in major metropolitan areas of China. We conducted a...
Aujeszky's Disease and Hepatitis E Viruses Transmission between Domestic Pigs and Wild Boars in Corsica: Evaluating the Importance of Wild/Domestic Interactions and the Efficacy of Management Measures
| Contributor(s):: Francois Charrier, Sophie Rossi, Ferran Jori, Oscar Maestrini, Celine Richomme, Francois Casabianca, Christian Ducrot, Johan Jouve, Nicole Pavio, Marie-Frederique Le Potier
Wildlife species as reservoirs of infectious pathogens represent a serious constraint in the implementation of disease management strategies. In the Mediterranean island of Corsica, the dynamics of hepatitis E virus (HEV) and Aujeszky’s disease virus (ADV) are suspected to be influenced...
Modeling The Zoonotic Transmission Dynamics Of Nipah Virus: Implications For Outbreak Control And Model-Guided Fieldwork
| Contributor(s):: Natasha Wenzel
Introduction: Nipah virus is considered a biosafety level-4 pathogen that is endemic to bats of the genus Pteropus. Infection in humans presents clinically as febrile encephalitis with an extremely high case-fatality rate (78.2%). Outbreaks of Nipah virus infection have occurred in Bangladesh and...
The Public Health Risks of Three Potentially Zoonotic Viruses in Pigs and Pork in Canada
| Contributor(s):: Barbara Wilhelm
The research described in this thesis aims to describe the potential public health risks posed by three emerging and potentially zoonotic viruses (hepatitis E virus (HEV), Norovirus (NoV), and rotavirus (RV) in pigs and pork in Canada. This was investigated via a scoping review, surveys of...
Zoonotic poxviruses associated with companion animals
| Contributor(s):: Tack, D. M., Reynolds, M. G.
Understanding the zoonotic risk posed by poxviruses in companion animals is important for protecting both human and animal health. The outbreak of monkeypox in the United States, as well as current reports of cowpox in Europe, point to the fact that companion animals are increasingly serving as...
Emerging and re-emerging zoonoses of dogs and cats
| Contributor(s):: Chomel, B. B.
Since the middle of the 20th century, pets are more frequently considered as "family members" within households. However, cats and dogs still can be a source of human infection by various zoonotic pathogens. Among emerging or re-emerging zoonoses, viral diseases, such as rabies (mainly from dog...
Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Human Infection with a New Zoonotic Paramyxovirus, Nipah Virus during a 1998-1999 Outbreak of Severe Encephalitis in Malaysia
| Contributor(s):: Flora Ong, Lye Munn Sunn, Anthony W. Mounts, Mohamad Taha Arif, Thomas G Ksiazek, Umesh D. Parashar, Muhammad A. Kamaluddin, Amal N. Mustafa, Hanjeet Kaur, Lay Ming Ding, Ghazali Othman, Hayati M. Radzi, Paul T. Kitsutani, Patrick C. Stockton, John Arokiasamy, Howard E. Gary Jr, Larry J. Anderson
An outbreak of encephalitis affecting 265 patients (105 fatally) occurred during 1998–1999 in Malaysia and was linked to a new paramyxovirus, Nipah, that infected pigs, humans, dogs, and cats. Most patients were pig farmers. Clinically undetected Nipah infection was noted in 10 (6%) of 166...
Enteric pathogens of dogs and cats with public health implications
| Contributor(s):: Kantere, M., Athanasiou, L. V., Chatzopoulos, D. C., Spyrou, V., Valiakos, G., Kontos, V., Billinis, C.
Dogs and cats play an important role in modern society, enhancing the psychological and physiological well-being of many people. However, there are well-documented health risks associated with human animal interactions. More specifically, enteric pathogens of zoonotic risk which are transmitted...
Descriptive epidemiology of fatal respiratory outbreaks and detection of a human-related metapneumovirus in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at Mahale Mountains National Park, western Tanazania
| Contributor(s):: Kaur, Taranjit
| Contributor(s):: Goldstein, E. J. C., Greene, C. E., Schlossberg, D.
This chapter focuses on diseases transmitted from cats to humans. The diseases transmitted by inhalation (bordetellosis, plague and Q fever), vectors (ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis, cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis, flea-borne spotted fever, murine typhus and leishmaniasis), faecal-oral...
Less common house pets
| Contributor(s):: Chomel, B. B., Schlossberg, D.
This chapter focuses on the major health threats associated with exposure of humans to less common house pets. The viral, bacterial, parasitic and mycotic zoonoses transmitted by pet rabbits, rodents, reptiles, amphibians, ornamental aquarium fish, ferrets, bats and nonhuman primates are...
Public health and animal welfare
| Contributor(s):: Molento, C. F. M., Appleby, M. C., Weary, D. M., Sandoe, P.
What are the links among the concepts of global public health, human health and animal welfare? The objective of this chapter is to discuss the relationship between public health and animal welfare issues, from the historical perspective of rabies control to the more recent challenges brought by...
Molecular insights into farm animal and zoonotic Salmonella infections
| Contributor(s):: Mark P. Stevens, Tom J. Humphrey, Duncan J. Maskell
Salmonella enterica is a facultative intracellular pathogen of worldwide importance. Infections may present in a variety of ways, from asymptomatic colonization to inflammatory diarrhoea or typhoid fever depending on serovar- and host-specific factors. Human diarrhoeal infections are frequently...
Pet dogs--a transmission route for human noroviruses?
| Contributor(s):: Summa, M., von Bonsdorff, C. H., Maunula, L.
Phylogenetic analysis of 626 hepatitis E virus (HEV) isolates from humans and animals in China (1986-2011) showing genotype diversity and zoonotic transmission
| Contributor(s):: Liu, P., Li, L., Wang, L., Bu, Q., Fu, H., Han, J., Zhu, Y., Lu, F., Zhuang, H.
Global Aspects of Emerging and Potential Zoonoses: A WHO Perspective
| Contributor(s):: F.-X. Meslin
Many new human pathogens that have emerged or reemerged worldwide originated from animals or from products of animal origin. Many animal species as well as categories of agents have been involved in the emergence of diseases. Wild (e.g., bats, rodents) as well as draught animals (e.g., horses)...