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  1. An Analysis of Innovate Training with Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Raymond John Van Steyn

    The National Aquarium in Baltimore, Maryland conducted a training program in 2014 to develop a gestural command for their dolphins called “innovate”. This training paradigm was developed to resemble the seminal research by Pryor, Haag and O’Reilly (1969), as well as more...

  2. Circadian Rhythm of Salivary Immunoglobulin A and Associations with Cortisol as A Stress Biomarker in Captive Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus)

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Tithipong Plangsangmas, Janine L. Brown, Chatchote Thitaram, Ayona Silva-Fletcher, Katie L. Edwards, Veerasak Punyapornwithaya, Patcharapa Towiboon, Chaleamchat Somgird

    Salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA) has been proposed as a potential indicator of welfare for various species, including Asian elephants, and may be related to adrenal cortisol responses. This study aimed to distinguish circadian rhythm effects on sIgA in male and female Asian elephants and...

  3. Carcass Feeding for Captive Vultures: Testing Assumptions about Zoos and Effects on Birds and Visitors

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Hannah Gaengler

    Carcass feeding is a potentially controversial feeding method for zoo animals. The common assumption is that many North American zoos refrain from feeding large carcasses to their carnivorous animals because zoo visitors might not approve of this feeding method. However, since there are several...

  4. Furred and feathered friends: how attached are zookeepers to the animals in their care?

    | Contributor(s):: Melfi, V., Skyner, L., Birke, L., Ward, S. J., Shaw, W. S., Hosey, G.

    Keeper-animal relationships (KARs) appear to be important in zoos, since they can enhance the well-being of both the animals and the keepers, can make animal husbandry easier, but conversely might risk inappropriate habituation of animals and possible risks to the safety of keepers. It is,...

  5. The Behavioral Effects of Feeding Enrichment on a Zoo-Housed Herd of African Elephants (Loxodonta africana)

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Caroline Marie Driscoll

    A comprehensive study on the behavioral effects of feeding enrichment was conducted on six African elephants housed at the North Carolina Zoological Park in Asheboro, NC. The herd is comprised of are two adult males, three adult females, and one subadult female. The study was conducted over a...

  6. Evaluation of the Impact of Behavioral Opportunities on Four Zoo-Housed Aardvarks (Orycteropus afer)

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Jennifer Hamilton, Grace Fuller, Stephanie Allard

    Evaluations of enrichment are critical to determine if an enrichment program is meeting stated goals. However, nocturnal species can present a challenge if their active periods do not align with caretakers’ schedules. To evaluate enrichment for four aardvarks housed with a natural light...

  7. Oral, Cloacal, and Hemipenal Actinomycosis in Captive Ball Pythons (Python regius)

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Steven B. Tillis, Marley E. Iredale, April L. Childress, Erin A. Graham, James F. X. Wellehan, Ramiro Isaza, Robert J. Ossiboff

    Ball pythons (Python regius) are one of the most commonly kept and bred reptiles in captivity. In a large ball python breeding colony, a unique syndrome characterized by granulomatous inflammation of the cloaca and hemipenes (phalli) was observed in 140 of 481 (29.1%) breeding males, but only...

  8. Using Thermal Imaging to Monitor Body Temperature of Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in A Zoo Setting

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Edward Narayan, Annabella Perakis, Will Meikle

    Non-invasive techniques can be applied for monitoring the physiology and behaviour of wildlife in Zoos to improve management and welfare. Thermal imaging technology has been used as a non-invasive technique to measure the body temperature of various domesticated and wildlife species. In this...

  9. Ireland Human-Animal Interactions Education Abroad

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Lauren Hamer

    For my project I took course in Human-Animal Interactions then went abroad to Ireland with the Department of Animal Sciences to do study that same thing. While abroad for 9 days we visited zoos, animal rehabilitation centers, multiple farms, the University College of Dublin, and even some...

  10. Use of Vertical Enclosure Space and Species-Typical Locomotion by a Rehabilitating Spider Monkey (Ateles fusciceps)

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Jake Funkhouser

    With wild spider monkey populations in decline, investigations contributing to captive welfare, and successful rehabilitation and reintroduction knowledge is increasingly pressing. Quantifying and analyzing the appropriateness of naturalistic enclosure designs to foster species-typical...

  11. A Case Study: Observations of Behaviors & Vocalizations in a Captive Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus) During Quarantine

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Alexandra Dilley

    Bozie, an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), was relocated from the Baton Rouge Zoo to Smithsonian’s National Zoo. During a requisite 29-day quarantine period, I recorded Bozie’s stress-related behaviors and the vocalizations she produced when she was alone and with her keepers in...

  12. Re-Evaluating Captive Chimpanzee "Dominance": Dominance Hierarchy and Chimpanzee-Caregiver Relationships at Chimpanzee Sanctuary Northwest

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Jake Alan Funkhouser

    This thesis is composed of two journal-ready articles and an accompanying appendix with additional data and interpretation. Overall, this thesis describes and statistically analyzes dominance relationships in two nonhuman primate groups with novel methods, possible correlations between...

  13. Contagious Yawning in African Elephants (Loxodonta africana): Responses to Other Elephants and Familiar Humans

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Zoë T. Rossman, Clare Padfield, Debbie Young, Benjamin L. Hart, Lynette A. Hart

    While spontaneous yawning is common across all vertebrate classes, contagious yawning is less common and has been observed only in a few species of social animals. Interspecific contagious yawning in response to yawning by humans has been observed only by chimpanzees and dogs. After...

  14. A Comparison of Chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes) Responses to Caregiver Use of Positive Reinforcement Training (PRT) and Species-Specific Behaviors (SSB)

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Whitney D. Emge

    The present study compared the effects of positive reinforcement training (PRT) and unstructured interactions (UI) on chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) behavior. In the PRT condition, a caregiver interacted with a chimpanzee to condition behaviors for 10 min. In the UI condition, a caregiver...

  15. Animals and Humans on Stage: Live Performances at Sea World on the Gold Coast

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Rebecca Scollen

    The purpose of this study is to investigate animal and human relations as constructed, and as demonstrated, through the live performances at Sea World on the Gold Coast, Australia. Particular attention is placed upon the meanings generated by the intersection of the starring animals and humans...

  16. Response of Three Species of Monkeys to Caregiver Use of Species-Typical Behavior

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Lillian Anna Stolar

    Caregivers are a primary part of captive monkey environments. When addressing psychological well-being of captive nonhuman primates, social environment should be considered. Chimpanzees, gorillas, New World monkeys, and Old World monkeys responded positively to interactions with caregivers....

  17. Post-release activity and habitat selection of rehabilitated black bears

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Patrick J. Myers, Julie K. Young

    Despite the long history of wildlife rehabilitation and the abundance of empirical knowledge of the behavior and resource selection of wildlife species, rarely does research bridge these disciplines. Such investigations could be of value to wildlife managers and rehabilitators by revealing the...

  18. The Architecture of Keeping Animals: Preservation Responses to Changing Animal Welfare Ideals in Mid-sized American Zoos

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Victoria McCollum

    Beginning in the mid-20th century, most of America’s Zoos began to re-evaluate the spaces which housed their living creatures. As advances in science and technology brought forward new information on animal welfare and care, zoos were soon faced with choices on the treatment of their...

  19. Why the "Visitor Effect" Is Complicated. Unraveling Individual Animal, Visitor Number, and Climatic Influences on Behavior, Space Use and Interactions With Keepers—A Case Study on Captive Hornbills

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Paul E. Rose, Jake S. Scales, James E. Brereton

    A “visitor effect” on zoo-housed species has been documented since the 1970s, with research focused on mammals (specifically primates). To broaden our understanding of the “visitor effect” in a non-mammal, we conducted a case study on a pair of hornbills, recording...

  20. Preparing The Yucatan Black Howler Monkey for Its Return to The Wild: An Assessment of Wildtracks' Approach to Rehabilitation and Reintroduction

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Blanca Ponce

    Nearly half of non-human primates are in danger of extinction due to the negative impact of anthropogenic activities. Among the species most negatively affected is the family Atelidae (Di Fiore, Link, & Campbell, 2011). For this reason, non-human primates remain a central focus in global...